HISTORY OF PERRY COUNTY
THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.
All through the winter of 1860-61, the country here as elsewhere, was in a feverish state of excitement, consequent upon the dissatisfaction existing in many of the Southern States, and their avowed intention of secession. Such action, when carried to its logical conclusion, could only end in civil war; consequently, the minds of the people were in some degree prepared for the intelligence that Fort Sumter had been fired upon, and that war had actually begun. Sunday, April, 1861, was a dark day, as the wires told of the bombardment of Sumter by the rebel forces under Beauregard, and the final surrender of Major Anderson and the brave men under his command. The attack startled and alarmed the people like the ringing of fire-bells in the night. Monday morning brought the news of President Lincoln's Proclamation for volunteers; and soon after came word of the firing on the Sixth Massachusetts, as it was marching through Baltimore, on its way to defend the beleaguered National Capital, and the death of two or three of its men. “Handle the bodies tenderly,” telegraphed Governor Andrew; “Give them every needful care and attention, and all expenses will be paid by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.” These words were read out at New Lexington as well as in almost every other telegraph office in the land, and at once introduced to the people everywhere, the great and popular war Governor of the East. Lyman J. Jackson, Prosecuting Attorney of Perry county, who had not been a supporter of President Lincoln in the contest of the preceding year, asked and obtained leave of Governor Dennison to enlist a company, in compliance with the proclamation of the President. A muster roll was made out and a meeting held at the Court House at night. Speeches were made by Mr. Jackson and W. H. Free, after which they signed their names to the muster roll. Other speeches were made, and other names secured to the roll. The next morning enlisting still went on. Volunteers began to flock in from Somerset, Straitsville, and other parts of the county. Meetings were held at the Court House almost every day and night. Judge Whitman, of Lancaster, came over and made a memorable two hours speech at the Court House, urging the right and necessity of maintaining the integrity of the Union at every hazard and to the last extremity. In a few days, the roll of the military company was full, and the enlisted men assembled at New Lexington and elected Lyman J. Jackson, Captain; Wm. H. Free, First Lieutenant, and Benjamin S. Shirley, Second Lieutenant. The company after organization, remained at New Lexington several days; the men were constantly drilled by the
Captain and Lieutenants, and other persons. A large quantity of red flannel was purchased, and a shirt made for each man of the company. The ladies met at the Court House, and with shears, needles, thimbles, and sewing machines, soon had all the garments completed. These, when donned by the boys, and worn without coats or vests, made quite a striking uniform. The weather was warm, and the company was drilled, ,dressed in this style, and, when off duty, the boys walked about the streets, or stood in groups, clad in the same novel and picturesque costume. The sound of the fife and drum was almost incessant, and the very air appeared to be full of the pomp, grandeur and circumstance, if not the woes and horrors of war. The town was full of people from the country, mostly the friends’ and relatives of the volunteers. One Sunday was spent in New Lexington after organization. It was passed in drill and warlike preparations, very much the same as other days, with the exception that on the green, in front of the M. E. Church, at the regular hour of service, Rev. L. F. Drake preached to the soldiers and people from the text: “In the name of the Lord we will raise up our banners.” A copy of the New Testament was here presented to each member of the military company. Take it all in all, this was the strangest and most memorable Sabbath ever spent in the town. Captain Jackson's company was ordered to report at Camp Anderson. Lancaster, Ohio, at which place it was mustered into the service for three months, as Company E of the Seventeenth O.V.I. A very large crowd was present at the depot when the boys left for Lancaster, and the scene was truly a memorable one. The boys gave a long, continued cheer, as the cars moved away. The regiment was soon after ordered- to join the forces under General McClellan, then operating in Western Virginia. The members of Company E first stepped upon the “sacred soil” at Benwood, opposite Bellaire, and were successively stationed at Clarksburg, Grafton, Buckhannon, and other neighboring towns; and barely escaped being in the battle of Rich Mountain. Just before this battle, General McClellan called for the Seventeenth Ohio, but the regiment had been divided and separated, and when that fact was reported to him, he ordered the Nineteenth Ohio in its place, which regiment was engaged in the battle. Company E participated in a number reconnoissances, and a memorable expedition to Ravenswood. The company, in connection with others of the Seventeenth, was engaged in breaking up rebel camps and recruiting stations, and driving recruiting officers out of that part of Virginia. In this way it did good service. They were in a number of skirmishes, and on one occasion encountered a force under O. Jennings Wise, son of Governor Wise, and worsted it. Young Wise was glad to get away. On one of these scouting expeditions, Lieutenant Free and a detachment captured a number of influential and active rebels who were taken to Camp Chase under Free's charge, and consigned to the military prison there. In a number of ways, these three months men did effective service. At the expiration of about four months, instead of three, as enlisted for, the Seventeenth regiment was withdrawn from the field, and mustered out at Camp Goddard, Muskingum county. These raw troops returned to their homes bronzed, fatigued, and almost worn out by the
service; but no deaths or casualties occurred in the company from Perry county. A majority of the company soon after enlisted in three year regiments, and served in all parts of the country, where the war waged. The men of the old original Company E are dead or widely sundered now. Of the hundred men or over, who marched down the hill to the depot on that April day in 1861, probably less than a dozen could now be mustered together in Perry county. The living are widely scattered, but many are dead, and their graves are about as widely separated as the abodes of the living. The following is a correct copy of the muster roll of the Company: Officers---Lyman J. Jackson, Captain; William H. Free, First Lieutenant; Benjamin S. Shirley, Second Lieutenant. Sergeants---Oliver Eckles, William S. Bright, William G. Williams, Thomas F. Hammond. Corporals---Henry L. Harbaugh, Levi Bowman, Levi Burgoon, William R. Hays. Privates---Adams, Calvin; Adams, John, Jr.; Alexander, Aaron; Berkey, George W.; Beck, John; Bradshaw, James; Baisore, John D.; Butler, Alexander; Buchanan, James; Connor, Fernando; Colborn, James P.; Cooksey, Obed S.; Colborn, John H.; Carroll, James R.; Conlon, Thomas; Colborn, Sylvester C.; Curran, Patrick F.; Cavinee, John; Drury, Henry B.; Dumolt, Martin : Denny, Robert H.; Delong, Joseph; Dolan, James T.; Doughty, John W.; Dupler, Solomon; Edwards, William; Frantz, Hiram; Freeman, John W.; Gruber, John W.; Guyton, Benjamin; Guyton, David; Goodin, Moses; Hickman, Thomas N.; Hickman, R. Fletcher; Haggandorn, Stephen; Hartsel, Smith; Harbaugh, Daniel; Henderson, James; Jackson, William S.; Ketchum, Newton; Keeley, Terrence; Little, William; Lovebury, Jonathan; Lidey, J. Warren; Lucas, Peter P.; Liddy, Andrew; Larimer, James; Larimer, Samuel B.; Moriart, John; Martin, John; Musselman, Henry; McMullen, Daniel; Mulharon, John; Mason, Horatio N.; Morgan, Reuben H.; McGonagle, Hugh; Nichols, George; Oatley, Jerome; O’Halloran, Thomas, Petit, Levi L.; Palmer, Ira; Prindable, Thomas; Rambo, Austin; Ricktor, Oliver; Rugg, Samuel; Stanbus, James; Sousley, George; Sousley, John; Studer, William A.; Saladee John W.; Spencer, Henry W.; Smith, Thomas; Spencer, Osborn; Sanders, John; Saffell, Richard C.; Sheldon, William; Tharp, Jackson; Tharp, Asa; Thomas, Simeon; Tharp, Alfred; Wright, Francis M.; Witmer, Daniel; Whitmer, Franklin; Williams, Columbus L.; Whipps, Andrew J. THIRTY-FIRST O. V. I.---When President Lincoln issued his first call for volunteers for three years or during the war, John W. Free of New Lexington was doing business at Straitsville, and had been elected Captain of an independent military company, organized at that place under the laws of Ohio. He promptly asked and obtained leave to raise a company for the three years’ service, went at once to work, and in a few days had his muster roll full and running over. A majority of the members of the home military company enlisted, embracing nearly half of the three years’ company as enrolled for the war. The celerity with which this body of brave men was enlisted for the service,
is almost incredible. Not many persons knew the fact that Mr. Free was authorized to raise a company, until it was announced that it was full. The men were enlisted principally in Saltlick, but Monroe, Pike and Monday Creek townships also contributed. It should be remembered, too, that the company was raised just after the Bull Run disaster, when the whole country was depressed and it was known that enlisting for the war meant business, and that of the most serious nature. Captain Free came up home on Saturday evening, announced that the ranks were full, the enlistment roll completed, and that his men would be in New Lexington the ensuing Tuesday morning to take the cars for Camp Chase, Columbus, for active service. That a full company, for so long a term of service could be raised in so short a time, it was almost impossible to believe; and many, no doubt, were impressed with the idea that matters were exaggerated. But the sequel proved that everything reported was solid fact. Many of the people of New Lexington knew nothing of the enlistment of the company, and those who did know something of it, were wholly unprepared to witness such a demonstration as followed. About ten o'clock in the forenoon, a great cloud of dust was seen to rise in McClellan’s lane, about a mile south of town. It was produced by the members of Captain Free's company and their friends, in buggies, expresses, carriages, wagons, on horseback and afoot, preceded by a good martial band, altogether making a procession of nearly two miles in length. In many cases, not only fathers and brothers, but mothers, sisters, cousins and sweethearts accompanied the boys to this place. As the imposing and altogether unprecedented procession moved into town, windows, doors, balconies and sidewalks were filled with spectators, handkerchiefs and flags were waved, and cheer upon cheer was given for the Union and the starry banner that symbolized it. Just such a demonstration the town never saw before or since, and probably never will again. When the volunteers got aboard the cars, there were many tearful words and sad farewells, as well as many a jovial laugh and cheerful, kind goodby. As the train slowly moved away, from platforms and car windows came a half tremulous yet loud and exultant cheer, that will linger long in the memory of those who heard it. Many of those brave boys never saw home or friends again; and of those who did, on furlough of some kind, many died afterward in hospitals, on the march, in their tents, or amid the awful carnage and surroundings of the battle field. Many of them repose in unknown graves. Captain J. W. Free's company reported promptly at Camp Chase, and was at once assigned as Company A of the Thirty-First Ohio. A few days later, and early in September, 1861, W. H. Free, who had just been mustered out of the three months’ service, obtained authority to enlist a company of three years’ men, and in a week or two he reported at Camp Chase, with his command full, and his company was assigned as Company D of the Thirty-First: Oliver Eckles of New Lexington, was commissioned as First Lieutenant. This company was recruited principally in Pike, Saltlick, Monroe and Clayton townships, in Perry county. A few of the men were from over the border in Athens and Hocking counties.
Before the three months’ troops had been mustered out, Henry Harper of Somerset had enlisted part of a company for the three years’ service; but when Captain Jackson, of the three months’ company, reached home, Harper gave way to Jackson, who, assisted by Lieutenant Henry C. Greiner and James W.. Martin, filled up the company, which came to New Lexington and took the cars for Camp Chase, where it was assigned as Company G of the Thirty-first. On the 21st of September, the regiment was ordered to the field. Companies A and B had been previously detailed for duty at Gallipolis, Ohio, but they were also ordered to join the main body of the regiment at Cincinnati, from which place it soon after went to Camp Dick Robinson, in Kentucky, where it remained several months, preparing by drill and discipline for more active and dangerous service. The regiment was ordered to Mill Springs, to assist Gen. Thomas; but the roads were very bad, the rivers were swollen, and it failed to reach Thomas in season to participate in the battle fought at that place. After this the Thirty-First went down the Ohio and up the Cumberland river to Nashville, Tennessee, where it was among the first Union troops to march into that city. It then moved southward with Buell’s army, and the boys trod the bloody field of Shiloh; but the fight was over and the rebel troops in full retreat. The Thirty-First was engaged in various service in Tennessee and Alabama, until the race between Buell and Bragg for the North opened, when the regiment marched through Murfreesboro northward to the Ohio river at Louisville. From this point the regiment again turned its steps southward. At the battle of Perryville, the division to which it belonged was partially under fire, and could plainly see the bursting shells and hear the awful roar of battle, and stood anxiously waiting the order to advance into the fight. But the order never came. This was perhaps one of the most trying hours the boys of the regiment ever experienced. The Thirty-First was actively engaged at Stone River, but the enemy on this part of the field gave way before a bayonet charge, and there were no severe losses. The regiment was next engaged at Hoovers Gap, where it behaved splendidly and assisted in driving the rebels from a strong position. Chickamauga came not long after, and the Thirty-First was sharply engaged on both days, and suffered severely, especially on the first day of the fight. Company A was fearfully depleted. The other companies from Perry suffered almost as much. A battery that had been captured by the rebels, was recaptured by a detachment of the Thirty-First Ohio, led by Captain W. H. Free. On the second day of Chickamauga, after the disastrous rout and disorganization of most of the Federal army, many of the Perry and Fairfield boys, members of the Seventeenth and Thirty-First, kept together, as well as they could, and when orders were given by General Thomas, commander of the army of the Cumberland, to which they belonged, to form a second line of battle, and throw up temporary breast-works, they joined heartily in the movement. Captain J. W. Stinchcomb, born and brought up in Thorn township, Perry county, but in command of a Fairfield county company, was very active and conspicuous in the formation of this famous second line of battle. So much so, in fact, that he is mentioned
by General Thomas in the official report of the battle. His loud hoarse voice was heard above the din, rallying the scattered soldiers, and his stalwart form almost tottered beneath an incredible load of rails. A private soldier of the Thirty-First facetiously remarked that he “never had the most distant idea how many rails were a load for a man, until he saw ‘Jim’ Stinchcomb in the business at Chickamauga.” Colonel Moses B. Walker, of the Thirty-First, was under arrest that day, and without a sword, in consequence of some red tape disobedience; but when the army was disorganized he appeared to have as much command as anybody, and worked bravely and effectively for the establishment of the second line of battle. The successful forming and holding of this second line was what saved the remnant of Rosecrans' army Chattanooga and all south of the Ohio. Had that line been given up, and Thomas’ army defeated, the seat of war would have been transferred from the South to the States north of the Ohio. Thousands of soldiers, of course, formed on this famous second line, but the author only attempts to sketch the part taken by a group of Perry soldiers and those acting directly with them. Longstreet's men who, only a little over two months before, had fought so bravely in a vain endeavor to storm the heights at Gettysburg, made charge after charge upon the line here, and several times appeared to be on the verge of driving the “Boys in Blue” back; but at short range they received such a deadly fire as no troops on earth could withstand. The side of the hill was strewn thick with the dead, wounded and dying. General Longstreet has lately said that when this assault failed, the Confederate cause was about the same as lost. No Union soldier who witnessed or encountered the charge of Longstreet's men on this memorable Sabbath afternoon, ever had or expressed any doubts of their heroism. The Federal soldiers after the rout, and retreat of several miles, had become desperately cool, and the deadly volleys they fired into the approaching columns of the foe, were among the most fearfully destructive of the whole war. As night drew on, and Longstreet's command failed to take the ridge, the dream of invading the North forever vanished from the minds of the Southern Generals. Two young neighbor boys, members of Company A, not fully comprehending the reason for rapidly retreating to a better position, and vexed and crying at the condition of affairs, declared that they did not go to war to run this way, and that they would not run from those men any longer. In spite of all remonstrances they lingered behind, loading and firing at the advancing foe, until they were shot down, at the same time. Their two graves, with head-boards giving their names, name of Company and number of regiment, to which they belonged, situated some distance from any other graves, have been seen by more than one traveler and newspaper correspondent. Their remains were afterward disinterred and transferred to a national cemetery. Soon after Chickamauga came Mission Ridge. The Thirty-First Ohio was one of the first regiments to ascend this eminence, in advance of order by the Commanding General. The firing was heavy and continuous, but the boys pushed up the hill; the rebels first overshot and then became panic stricken, and the loss was not severe. It is well to remember that the successful battle of Mission Ridge was fought and
gained without orders, and the credit or discredit of it belongs properly to the enlisted soldiers and line officers. Soon after Mission Ridge the Thirty-First re-enlisted and came home on veteran furlough. The reception of the Perry county Companies will not soon be forgotten. A telegram from Columbus gave the time they would arrive. Colonel M. B. Walker, of Findlay, Ohio, wishing, as he said, to visit the county that furnished more men for his regiment than any other, accompanied by some other officers of the regiment, came home to New Lexington with the boys. The National and Regimental colors were in the hands of soldiers from Perry, and the flags also came along. Hundreds of people assembled at the depot, short as the notice had been. The veterans at once formed, and preceded by a band of martial music, and the color-bearers holding aloft the torn and tattered flags, marched up the hill and into the Court House, where a reception speech was made by Judge R. F. Hickman. Colonel Walker responded on behalf of the veterans in a thrilling and eloquent speech. The Court House was full to overflowing, and altogether it was a very memorable occasion. The soldiers then broke ranks for a bountiful supper that had been prepared for them by the ladies of New Lexington. For thirty days the veterans had a good time at home, where the regiment received about as many recruits as it had veteran members. When the regiment returned to the field, with ranks well filled up, it almost immediately entered upon service in the Atlanta campaign under the general direction of General Sherman. In a few days after reaching the front it was in the assault upon Resaca and encountered serious losses. The regiment subsequently took part in all the important battles of the Atlanta campaign, with the single exception of Jonesboro. When Atlanta was gained the regiment marched into Alabama in pursuit of Hood, but the chase was given up and the National troops returned to Atlanta. On the 16th of November, 1864, the Thirty-first left Atlanta and started with Sherman on his “March to the Sea.” It participated in the many vicissitudes of this grand march and the campaign up through the Carolinas. After the surrender of Lee and Johnson it marched with the main army to Richmond and then to Washington City, where it took part in the general review. After this it was transferred to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out, July 20th, 1865, The The regiment was at once sent to Camp Chase, Ohio, and the men paid and discharged. The Perry soldiers of the Thirty-first O.V. I. have a military record of which they, their friends, and the county may be justly proud. The names of Stone River, Hoover's Gap, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Atlanta, Kenesaw, and numerous other battles, tell the story of the conflicts through which they passed. As previously stated, the regiment received many recruits while at home on furlough, and the Perry companies obtained more than their full quota. Company A, especially, had been fearfully decimated in the service, and came home on veteran furlough with thin ranks. This Company received many recruits, but they were mostly boys, many of whom were not over thirteen or fourteen years of age, and several of
them younger brothers or sons of men who had died in the service. Company A received about thirty young recruits. When on their way to Newark to enlist the group of young striplings looked very unlike soldiers, but when they returnee in the evening, dressed in soldier clothes, they did not look like the same squad of boys. They were mostly small, as well as young, and became known as the “Babies of the Thirty-first.” Members of other companies were in the habit of twitting those of Company A about the time and trouble they must have to wash and dress their “babies.” But these “babies” learned to fight bravely, and several of them were killed in battle or died in hospital, and their bones repose in Southern soil, which the sacrifice of their young lives contributed in restoring to the dominion of the old flag. An incident which occurred in the early part of the war, at Camp Dick Robinson, is worthy of preservation. The Thirty-first Regiment, at that time had a splendid band, and Captain Bill Free and others thought they would get up a serenade for General Sherman. Accordingly, twenty or thirty soldiers, under the direction of Captain Free, repaired to Headquarters and blew a melodious blast of music upon the stillness of the night air. General Sherman was more prompt than the serenaders anticipated, and appeared before the sweet and captivating strains of music had ceased. “What do you want?” he demanded. Some one timidly answered, “A speech.” “A speech, a speech!” yelled the General. “Do you think I am John Sherman, and want to make a speech ? Who are you, anyway?” “Soldiers of the Thirty-first Ohio.” Captain Free responded. And then, as the Captain used to say, some idiot added, “Principally from Perry County.” “Go to your own quarters immediately,” roared Sherman, “and quit stealing Dick Robinson's rails, or I'll have you all put in the guard-house.” The serenaders unceremoniously left quite crest-fallen. Just about that time General Sherman was reported crazy, and the detachment at first thought there must be some truth in the report, whatever their opinions may have been later. Sherman himself saw new light on the “rail” and kindred questions before the close of the war. He also learned to make a creditable speech, as the world knows. THE THIRTIETH O.V. I.---When the late Rebellion commenced John W. Fowler was Captain of an independent military company at New Lexington, but at the time absent from home, and consequently took no part in the organization of the three months’ volunteers. However, when President Lincoln issued the proclamation for volunteers for three years or during the war, Captain Fowler, who in the meantime had returned, applied for and obtained permission to raise a company; and assisted by James Taylor and William Massie, who were commissioned Lieutenants, went heartily to work, and in a few weeks the company was raised, and promptly reported at Camp Chase near Columbus, and was mustered into the service as company D of the Thirtieth O.V.I. Two days after the regiment was ordered to the field. On the second of September, 1861, the regiment reached Clarksburg, Virginia. It then marched from Charleston to Weston, and there received its first camp equipage. September 6th, the regiment joined the command of General Rosecrans, at Sutton Heights. Company D, Captain Fowler’s,
and two other companies, were ordered to remain there and the rest of the regiment and command marched off on other expeditions. The detachment at Sutton was not idle. The men were kept constantly on the alert, and were frequently engaged in sharp conflicts with the bushwhackers. The skirmishes were almost continual, and the force was none too strong to hold the position. Two or three of the detachment were killed and several wounded, while at Sutton. On the 23d of December, the companies that had been stationed at Sutton, joined the regiment at Fayetteville, and went into winter quarters. In April, 1862, it broke up winter quarters and went to Raleigh. After this the Thirtieth, with the first brigade of General Cox’s division, fell back to Princeton, and then went into camp on Flat Top Mountain. About the middle of August, the regiment with Cox’s division was ordered to join the army in Eastern Virginia. The troops were conveyed in transports to Parkersburg, there boarded the cars, passed through the National capital and joined the army under command of General Pope. The regiment was under fire at the second battle of Bull Run, though not very actively engaged. After this disaster to the National cause, and the subsequent crossing of the Potomac by the rebel army, the regiment marched through the city of Washington by the way of the city of Frederick, and on toward South Mountain. At the battle of South Mountain, which quickly followed, the division to which the Thirtieth belonged, was among the first to be engaged. Company D was in the hottest of the fight and suffered severely. Five or six of the company were killed outright, and twice as many wounded, several of whom died in a few days in consequence of their wounds. The company was subsequently in the hottest of the fight at Antietam, but did not meet with such severe losses as at South Mountain. Captain Fowler was wounded in the battle, and one private instantly killed, being shot in the head. After remaining a few days near the Antietam battlefield, the Thirtieth, with the division of which it was a part, was ordered back to West Virginia. Here it remained until about the first of December, when the command to which it belonged, was ordered to join the great army under General Grant, operating with a view to the capture of Vicksburg. It moved down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and joined the Western Army at Young's Point, where it went into camp. This was an unhealthy locality, and there was much sickness in consequence, from which the Perry boys did not escape. Captain Fowler was seriously sick for several weeks. When the time for action had come, the Thirtieth moved down the western banks of the Mississippi, and crossed with the army at Grand Gulf. During the investment of Vicksburg, the Thirtieth participated in the preliminary battles and in several assaults on the enemy's works, and suffered considerable losses. It was there at the surrender of the place. Soon after this the regiment was transferred to the army at Chattanooga, and bore an honorable part in the successful and decisive battle of Mission Ridge. In March, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted, and, like other regiments, was sent home on veteran furlough, to have a good time and fill up its thinned ranks with recruits. Captain Fowler’s company was warmly welcomed upon its arrival at New Lexington. There was a reception
and addresses at the court house, and a supper afterwards. After the memorable thirty days at home, and ranks greatly strengthened by recruits, the Thirtieth boys bade friends good-by and returned again to the front. They were in the long and arduous Atlanta campaign, and joined in the pursuit of Hood's forces into Alabama. In the battle of Jonesboro, the Thirtieth lost heavily. It was one of Sherman’s regiments in the famous march through the heart of the confederacy to the sea, and was of the attacking force that stormed Fort McAlister. The regiment marched up through the Carolinas and took part in the battle of Bentonville, one of the last engagements of the civil war. Lieutenant Benjamin Fowler and others were wounded in the battle. The Thirtieth marched on with Sherman, up through Virginia, including the late rebel capital, and on to Washington, D. C., where it participated in the great review. Soon after the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., and afterwards to Little Rock, Arkansas. On the thirteenth of August it was ordered to Columbus, Ohio, where the men were paid and discharged on the 22d of the same month. The regiment was in the service about four years, and it is estimated that, during its term of service, it traveled a distance of thirteen thousand miles. Lieutenant W. S. Hatcher of Company D in this regiment, had some remarkable episodes in his military life. He was captured in the neighborhood of Vicksburg, early in 1863, and with others forwarded to Richmond, and placed in the celebrated Libby prison. He had not been there long until, as he states, a fellow prisoner came rushing down stairs and inquired: “Where is the man from New Lexington, Perry county, Ohio ? “Hatcher said he was the man, and the interrogator announced that his name was Henry Spencer, and he was born and brought up in Somerset, Perry county. Of course they shook hands heartily, and had much to talk over. They had never seen each other before, but their fathers were acquainted; they came from the same county, and could talk over familiar things. This Spencer was Captain in a Wisconsin regiment. He was a son of E. A. Spencer, formerly of Somerset, and State Senator in 1855-56. Hatcher and Spencer both remained in Libby for several months in the year 1863. They were both singers, and when the inmates of Libby learned by the colored grapevine line, that Vicksburg had fallen and Gettysburg was won, they were of those who crowded around the prison windows, and roared out in song, under the lead of Chaplain McCabe of Delaware, Ohio, Mrs. Howe’s glorious Battle Hymn of the Republic. Hatcher and Spencer afterward, with other officers, were sent to Charleston, South Carolina, and placed under the fire of the bombarding fleet, in retaliation for something done on the Federal side, alleged to be in controvention of the laws of war. When this confinement and exposure was over, they were put on the cars to be removed to Salisbury or Andersonville, as they supposed. Hatcher, Spencer and three other officers, determined to make an effort to escape. They were being transported in box cars, and were not running at a very high rate of speed, and it was after dark. At an agreed signal, Hatcher and comrades pushed aside the guards and jumped out. The shots of the guards hurt no one, and the whole five escaped, with only slight bruises, while the train passed on. The five escaped men moved off at a rapid pace. They had to flank a dwelling,
some time in the night, and Hatcher and two comrades went to the right of it, and the two others to the left; they were to come together after the house was safely passed. The two parties failed to meet as expected, and they did not dare to make any outcry. After waiting and searching around for some considerable time, with no success, Hatcher and party resumed their journey. They had a weary, painful tramp of about forty days. They walked at night and secreted themselves in daytime. They lived on corn from the fields, or walked into the negro cabins in the night session and got corn bread and bacon. They hesitated, at first, but hunger drove them and they walked boldly and trustingly into negro quarters, and were never betrayed. On one occasion they were delayed in finding a good hiding place, and were seen by a white man, a little after daybreak. They hurried on and concealed themselves the best they could. It was not long until they heard a commotion, and saw armed men riding about in search of them. Some of the men and dogs came uncomfortably near, but the boys were not discovered. When Hatcher and Comrades reached the Tennessee river, they knew not what to do, and were almost in despair. There were no boats available, and their negro aids were also disheartened at the prospects. Finally, a negro came who thought he could procure a boat some distance away. The fellow run a great risk. He had to take it clandestinely, and return it before day-break. The boat was secured, and, in company with four or five blacks, the three weary, half-starved men crossed to the northern side. Standing on the northern bank of the river, the boys began to feel that they would once more reach the Union lines and see "God’s country.” They shook hands with their black deliverers and bade them good by. They told them that they had no money or anything else to give them; even the brass buttons from their coats had been presented, one by one, to other negroes, until all were gone. The colored men said they did not expect or want anything, and were glad to be able to help the soldiers on their way North. But the boys had now reached a part of the country much infested by rebel guerillas, and where numerous Union prisoners, almost “Out of the jaws of death and the gates of Hell,” had been recaptured and taken back to prison. The weary, discouraged boys once more had recourse to the blacks. Seeing an intelligent looking negro, one of the party accosted him and asked how he thought they might reach the Union lines. “Yes, massa, I can take yous to whare there is a Company of cavalry.” “That is just what we do not want to find,” was the quick reply. “But dey is Union cavalry,” persisted the darkey---“white Southern men.” Now came the most anxious consultation of the long trip. At last it was decided to trust the negro and go with him to the camp of the “Union Cavalry.” They found the cavalry just as reported. They were citizens of Northern Georgia, who adhered to the Union. The Commander, with a number of his men, escorted Hatcher and companions to the Union lines. Their two comrades, from whom they became separated the first night of the long tramp, came in the next day, about thirty miles farther down the line. The two parties had only been from twenty to thirty miles apart all the way through, but heard and knew nothing of each other, until they reached the Union lines.
SIXTY-SECOND O.V. I.---The Sixty-Second Regiment recruited more men from Perry than any other one in the service, unless possibly the Thirty-First. There were three distinct companies from this county and two other companies of the regiment were composed of men about half of whom were from this county. Captain A. M. Poundstone resigned his position as Superintendent of the New Lexington schools, and, in connection with Lieutenants Harry S. Harbaugh, of Saltlick, and Samuel B. Larimer, of Mondaycreek township, recruited Company C of the regiment. The enlisted men of the company came chiefly from Pike, Saltlick, Mondaycreek and Clayton townships. Company D was recruited principally in Reading township, by Captain B. A. Thomas, assisted by the Lieutenants. Company H was raised by Captain N. D. Hufford and Lieutenants, the most of the men probably coming from Saltlick, but several other townships also contributed men. A few of the men were enlisted over the border, in Hocking county. Company A was recruited by Captain Edwards of Roseville, Muskingum county, and the Perry county portion of its men came principally from Harrison, Clayton and Bearfield townships. The Lieutenants were probably from Perry. The Perry men in Company K were recruited mostly in Pike, Clayton, Jackson and Mondaycreek townships, by Lieutenant James Palmer. The Sixty-Second rendezvoused at Camp Goddard, near Zanesville, and was there organized and mustered into service in November, 1861. The regiment remained in camp drilling and waiting until January, 1862, at which time it was ordered to report to General Rosecrans, commanding a body of troops in Western Virginia. It was not long in responding to the order, and was soon in actual service at the front. The regiment supported a battery in the first battle of Winchester, in which engagement Stonewall Jackson's men were worsted. Afterwards for months the Sixty-Second marched and counter-marched through Western and Northern Virginia. It was near at hand at the battle of Port Republic, but not actively engaged. The last of June, 1862, the Sixty-Second was ordered to join General McClellan’s defeated army, at Harrison’s Landing, which it did, going by way of Fortress Monroe. In August, it was in the retreat down the peninsula to Yorktown. In January, 1863, the regiment was sent first to Beaufort, and then to Newberne, North Carolina. Afterward to Port Royal, South Carolina, where it lay in camp at Helena Island, Folly Island and then at Morris Island. July 18th, 1863, came the ill-advised, desperate and bloody assault upon Fort Wagner. In the unavailing and disastrous charge, the regiment lost one hundred and fifty men, in killed, wounded and prisoners. A few facts in connection with the death of an enlisted soldier, killed in this charge, is worthy of relation here. Henry Sands, of New Lexington, was an educated and accomplished young man from the north of Ireland, who marrying here, left a wife and one child to risk his life for his adopted country. His letters, published in the Perry County Weekly at the time, and giving an interesting and graphic picture of the doings of the regiment up to the date of his death, were read by many who will read this sketch of the Sixty-Second. The pictures, keepsakes, memorandas and other writings, found in his pockets, touched
the hearts of the rebel soldiers, and under a flag of truce, these things were given into the keeping of the comrades of the dead soldier, to be sent to his bereaved family. But the dead body of the young patriot was buried in a trench with many others, on the spot where they met their heroic death. In January, 1864, the Sixty-Second, having re-enlisted, came home on veteran furlough. The writer witnessed the arrival of the regiment at Zanesville amid the welcome plaudits of assembled thousands. With the steady, systematic tread of veterans, the regiment marched up Market and down Main streets to a point opposite the court house, where reception speeches and responses were made. After these ceremonies were over, a public dinner was given the returned veterans. The Perry county companies were to reach New Lexington about 4 p. m., where reception ceremonies were to take place at the court house and afterward a public supper. But the moving of the train was for some cause delayed, and it was nearly midnight when the cars reached New Lexington. At four o'clock, and for hours thereafter, the neighborhood of the depot was crowded with an expectant throng of people; but as the train did not come, and there was no news from it, the large assemblage dwindled away, and not a great many were present to receive the returning braves. But the court house was quickly lighted up, the bell rang, the drums beat, and before the veterans had marched up the hill from the depot, the court house was nearly filled with people. Dr. F. L. Flowers made the reception speech and Quartermaster Craven W. Clowe responded in behalf of the soldiers. After this came the supper. When the veteran furlough expired the regiment was ordered to Washington City, and next to the front, near Petersburg, Virginia. During the summer of 1864 the regiment was almost constantly under fire, participated in frequent engagements and general battles, and nearly always suffered severely. Deep Bottom was a conflict that does not stand out very conspicuously in the Nation's annals, but it was a place of serious import to the Sixty-second Ohio and to friends at home. Many of the brave sons of Perry were there laid low. The action was at first a successful advance, then it was not supported as intended, and the Union soldiers were compelled to fall back under a murderous fire. How much of it was bad generalship, and how much the unavoidable fortune of war, will probably never be known. A soldier just from the burial of his dead comrades at Deep Bottom, surrounded by the wives, mothers, and children of those so lately killed in battle, was one of the most distressing scenes in Perry county during the war. After the sorrowing friends had withdrawn some one ventured to inquire of the soldier if he thought “they could take Richmond.” “Take it; I guess we will ! Its a hard road to travel; but we'll go there.” This remark illustrated the spirit of the soldiery and the times. In the spring of 1865 the Sixty-second participated in the unsuccessful assault upon Petersburg. It was, also, in the charge upon Fort Gregg, where the regiment suffered severely. It was, also, a participant in the engagement at Appomattox Court-house, the last conflict between the veteran troops of Lee and the National forces. About the last of August, 1865, the Sixty-second was consolidated
with the Sixty-seventh, and the consolidated regiment was mustered out of service in December, 1865, the Perry veterans being in the service a little more than four years. The Sixty-second can bear upon its banners Winchester, Morris Island, Fort Wagner, Deep Bottom, Petersburg, Fort Gregg, Appomattox Court-house, and numerous other engagements, named and unnamed, along the lines in front of the rebel capital during the last year of the war. NINETIETH O.V. I.---The organization of this regiment was completed at Circleville, Ohio, in July, 1862, under the auspices of the military committees of Perry, Fairfield, Hocking, Vinton, Pickaway, and Fayette counties. Company H of this regiment came from Perry county. It was enlisted by Captain N. F. Hitchcock and Lieutenants Feeman and Selby. The men of which it was composed came, nearly all, from the townships of Monday Creek, Pike, Reading, Hopewell, Thorn and Madison. The regiment was completed and mustered into service August 28th, 1862. The next day it was on its way to the seat of war, and reported without delay to the commanding officer at Lexington, Kentucky. Soon after the regiment joined Buell’s army and entered upon a forced march through heat and dust, and almost without water fit to drink, which was very hard upon new recruits. The regiment had a little rest at Louisville, and then followed after Bragg southward through Kentucky. It was near the battle of Perryville, but through some mistake the division to which it belonged was not ordered into action. After the battle of Perryville the Ninetieth did much marching and counter-marching through Kentucky and Tennessee, often skirmishing with the enemy, and at one time taking over two hundred prisoners. In November, 1862, the regiment went into camp near Nashville, Tennessee. In the latter part of December it moved with the main army in the direction of Murfreesboro. On the morning of the 31st of December, the first day of the Stone River fight, the Ninetieth became hotly engaged and behaved very gallantly, but the Federal forces were overpowered and obliged to fall back. The Ninetieth in this, its first engagement, suffered a loss of one hundred and thirty men in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was also in the second day's fight, but fortunately the loss was not heavy. On the same day it occupied the hill on which was massed the forty pieces of artillery which drove the last considerable body of the rebel forces over Stone River. The Ninetieth lay in camp near Murfreesboro until about the last of June. When General Rosecrans again moved in the direction of the enemy, the regiment did its full share of hard marching that resulted in flanking the rebel army out of Tennessee. It was engaged both days at the sanguinary battle of Chickamauga, and lost about ninety men in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was engaged in various scouting duties, building fortifications, guarding rebel prisoners, etc., until the commencement of the Atlanta campaign. For over one hundred days, and throughout this harrassing and eventful campaign, the Ninetieth was constantly on duty and participated in nearly all the important battles which eventually resulted in the fall of Atlanta. This
regiment, unlike most of the others made up in part of Perry county men, instead of going with Sherman on the march to the sea, was left with the National forces which were to look after General Hood, and the safety of Nashville and the North. The regiment returned almost over the very ground gone over during the advance toward Atlanta. It was engaged in the battle of Franklin, one of the fiercest and most desperate struggles of the war. The Ninetieth was also in the sanguinary and decisive battle of Nashville, where General Thomas and the brave men who composed his command, gave Hood and his forces the fearful staggering blow that not only badly defeated, but almost annihilated his army, thus saving Ohio and Indiana from imminent peril, and making Sherman’s march to the sea a brilliant success, which otherwise might have been of no advantage, if not a general disaster to the Union cause. After the defeat of Hood the Ninetieth followed in pursuit as far as the Tennessee River. After this the regiment was successively encamped at Huntsville, Alabama, and Nashville, Tennessee, until the collapse of the Southern Confederacy in the surrender of Lee and Johnson, and the close of the terrible civil war. The regiment was ordered to Ohio and mustered out at Camp Chase. ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTEENTH O.V.I.---This regiment was organized at Camp Circleville, in August, 1862, and came from the counties of Perry, Fairfield, Pickaway, Fayette, Hocking and Vinton. Companies G and I were enlisted in Perry county. Company G was raised by Captain Ephraim Brown and Lieutenants Hiram Thomas and others. The men composing this company were chiefly from Pike, Monday Creek and Jackson townships. Company I was raised by Captain L. F. Muzzy and Lieutenants J. D. Coulson and W. H. Goodin, the men coming principally from Pike, Reading, Clayton, Hopewell and Madison townships. The regiment was mustered into service September 11th, 1862, and remained at Camp Circleville until about the 20th of September following, when it marched across the country to Chillicothe, and there took the cars for Marietta, at which latter place it was stationed until the first of December, 1862, in the mean while occupied in drilling and taking other lessons in the science of war. In the latter part of December, the regiment started on transports down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to Memphis, Tenn. Soon after it joined Sherman’s army in the first expidition against Vicksburg. The regiment landed at Chickasaw Bluffs, and was soon hotly engaged in the battle that ensued at this point, losing several men in killed and wounded. The assault was unsuccessful; the Federal troops were repulsed and ordered aboard the boats. Returning from Chickasaw Bluffs, and no longer menacing Vicksburg, the army moved up the river and on up to Arkansas Post. A landing was there effected, the Post attacked, and after a brief but sharp engagement, it surrendered. After the reduction of Arkansas Post, the regiment was ordered to Young's Point, Louisiana, and went into camp at that place. This camp was very unhealthy, and while lying there, the regiment lost about one hundred men from malarial diseases. In March, 1862, a removal was made
to Milliken's Bend, and the regiment remained in camp there until General Grant ordered the movement against Vicksburg. The One Hundred and Fourteenth was in all this campaign, and participated in the battles of Thompson's Hill, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, and the long, painful siege of the beleagured city. The regiment lost a number of men at Thompson's Hill, Black River Bridge, and in the charge at Vicksburg, on the 22d of May. During the siege, Colonel Cradlebaugh. the regimental commander, was very severely wounded. After the fall of Vicksburg, July 4th, 1863, the One Hundred and Fourteenth marched and countermarched, or moved by rail on a number of minor expeditions into the State of Louisiana. In November, 1863, the regiment embarked at New Orleans and sailed across the Gulf to Texas. This proved to be a somewhat stormy voyage, and most of the men soon became very sea-sick. Captain Ephraim Brown of New Lexington, felt so well on the water for a while, that he was disposed to make a little sport of his comrades for collapsing so easily; he declared the sensation was just "splendid," and strikingly reminded him of riding over a cornfield at home on a load of hay. It is enough to say that the Captain's " riding on a load of hay," failed to hold out according to promise, and he could not have comprehended a joke, if that article had floated around, as plentiful as blackberries on "Brier Ridge." The regiment and accompanying troops were the first National forces that occupied the State of Texas during the war. It remained at different points in Texas until April, 1864, when it re-crossed the Gulf, and formed a junction with General Banks at Alexandria, to which point his command had fallen back, after its disastrous expedition up the Red River country. The One Hundred and Fourteenth joined the National forces in the general retreat from Alexandria to Morganza, Louisiana, on the Mississippi. This was one of the severest and most trying marches of the war, as the retreating forces were constantly harassed by the enemy on flank and rear. In January, 1865, the regiment was ordered to Barrancas, Florida, from which point it participated in the investment and capture of Mobile; the last battle of the war, for the place was captured on the day that Lee surrendered. John H. Kelly, of New Lexington, who was Major of the regiment, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and then to Colonel of the regiment. When acting as Lieutenant Colonel, he was frequently in command of the regiment, as Colonel Cradlebaugh had been severely wounded at Vicksburg, and eventually resigned. Captain V. M. Ogle, of New Lexington, served for a while as Quartermaster, but resigned before the close of the war. Rev. Theodore Stowe, also of New Lexington, served as Chaplain, and was mustered out with the regiment. Rev. Stowe was perhaps the most abstemious and exacting Chaplain in the whole army. Colonel Kelly once invited his brother officers, including the Chaplain, to a good, sociable dinner in his tent. Colonel Kelly being a strictly temperate man, used no stimulating liquors, but did not taboo tobacco, and consequently the tent soon after dinner, began to get pretty well filled with tobacco smoke. Chaplain Stowe began
to remonstrate, whereupon the Colonel took him to one side and gently told him that the tent was his house, the officers there were his invited guests, and he did not want him to make remarks that might be considered offensive. The mild looking Chaplain, raising his hand and pointing his long, bony finger in the direction of the tent, slowly replied: "Colonel, I know that rag is yours, but no man has a proprietorship in God's pure air, and it is both ungentlemanly and wicked to pollute it." This closed the debate, and the Chaplain retired from participating in the after dinner festivities. As previously stated, the Perry companies of the regiment suffered greatly from malarious diseases while encamped in the neighborhood of Vicksburg; and at the time the movement upon that place was ordered, the sick men were directed to be sent home. About twenty men of the Perry companies reached New Lexington by special train one Sabbath morning, without any previous announcement whatever. They were all weak and emaciated, and had to be placed on beds and hauled up into town, and to their several homes. Some of them were too weak to hold up their heads. They remained at home several weeks, and some of them months; but they nearly all finally recovered, and rejoined their companies. The arrival of these very sick men, in such a weak and debilitated condition, was a distressing and pitiful sight. But even these sick men were more fortunate than others; for many a stout, hardy son of Perry died and was buried on the banks of the Mississippi. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIXTH O. V. I.---Company K of this regiment was enlisted in Perry county, from the townships of Thorn, Hopewell and Madison, and chiefly from the first named township. Captain Reuben Lampton of Thornville, was authorized to raise the company, and enlisted the men, though D. J. Gallon, a native of the county, and afterward a somewhat noted politician of Mercer county, assisted him very much. The company came to New Lexington to take the cars, accompanied by quite a procession, headed by the venerable Rezin Franks, and marching to the lively strains of martial music. The company first went to Circleville, Ohio, to be organized as a part of the Ninetieth, but was afterward transferred to Steubenville, and became a part of the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth. The regiment was mustered into service about the first of September, 1862. It was stationed for a few weeks at Parkersburg, and afterward, for about the same length of time, at Cumberland, Maryland. In the spring and summer of 1863, the regiment served in West Virginia, and suffered much from sickness. In June of this year, the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth was in the affair at Martinsburg, a surprise to the Union forces, which resulted in the capture of the place, and a victory for the enemy. Soon after this the regiment was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac. It was subsequently detached therefrom to go to New York to assist in enforcing the draft. After the draft troubles were over the regiment rejoined the Army of the Potomac. Before the opening of Grant's campaign against Richmond, in the spring of 1864, the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth was taken from the Third and placed in the Sixth Corps, took part in every important battle from the
crossing of the Rapidan, early in May, until the crossing of the James, in the latter part of June, including The Wilderness, Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor. At Spotsylvania, Captain Reuben Lampton was instantly killed, and thus perished a brave and generous soldier. The One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth lost heavily in those great encounters with the Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Lee. In July, 1864, the regiment was detached from the Army of the Potomac and sent into Maryland, where it fought in the battle Monocacy, and subsequently took part in the pursuit of General Jubal Early's Army. In September, 1864, the One Hundred and Twenty Sixth, with the Sixth Corps, having been ordered to join General Sheridan’s command in the Shenandoah Valley, moved against the rebels and participated in the battle of Winchester, losing heavily in officers and privates, killed and wounded. Captain Williams of Madison township, was severely wounded in this battle. The regiment was also in the battle of Fisher's Hill. It was also engaged at Cedar Creek, and was with the advance, when General Sheridan, a Perry county boy, came on the ground, and turned what seemed to be a serious disaster, into one of the most glorious and decisive victories of the whole war. In December, the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, with the whole Sixth Corps, were again transferred to the Army of the Potomac. In April, 1865, the regiment went in with the old Sixth Corps in the charge upon the Rebel fortifications. This was an awful struggle, but at last the enemy was driven from his entrenchments, and the fall of Richmond became certain. The regiment was engaged in the pursuit of Lee's army. After the surrender, the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth and Corps were ordered to push through to Danville, to assist in the capture of General Johnson's army. But when they reached Danville, Johnson had already surrendered to General Sherman. Soon after the surrender of the rebel armies, the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth marched through Richmond to Washington city, and was mustered out in the latter part of June. Few regiments saw more hard service and did more fighting than the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth. Martinsburg, Bristow Station, The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Monocacy, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Petersburg---these tell their own story, in terms more eloquent than the tongue of orator or pen of historian. While the memory of the terrible civil war remains, the struggles, sufferings and heroic fighting for the flag by the Perry boys of the One Hundred and Twenty-Sixth can never be forgotten. SEVENTEENTH O. V. I. The line officers from Perry county, and their friends, who had been in the Seventeenth in the three months service, for some reason, did not take kindly to the reorganization of the regiment for three years, but preferred other regiments, that were also in course of formation. Yet the Seventeenth contained about one company, in the agregate, of Perry county men, enlisted by Captains Stinchcomb and Rickets, and Lieutenants Benjamin Showers and Owen Brown, the men coming chiefly from the townships of Thorn, Monday-creek, Pike and Saltlick. Lieutenant Showers, who was a citizen of New Lexington, had been a private of company A of the
First, O. V. I. in the three months service. As Captain Stafford's company from Lancaster came through New Lexington, he joined it and went to Columbus, and was with it until mustered out, including a participation in the Bull Run battle. He was the first soldier to leave Perry county for the war. Captain Showers and Lieutenant Brown were citizens of Perry, and Captain Stinchcomb, was, also, formerly a citizen of the county. Captain Ricketts was a citizen of Hocking, but recruited a number of men in the neighborhood of Maxville, Perry county. The seventeenth was organized in September, 1861, and reported at Camp Dick Robinson, early in October. It was soon after engaged in the battle of Wild Cat. It also participated at Mill Springs. It was on its way to Shiloh, but arrived on that historic ground after the battle was over. It afterward, with Buell’s command, pursued General Bragg through Kentucky, and was close at hand, but not engaged at Perryville. It participated, actively, in the battle of Stone River. It was in the thickest of the fight at Chickamauga, both days, and lost heavily, in killed and wounded. It was also in the storming force at Mission Ridge. In the latter action, when Major Butterfield fell, mortally wounded, Captain Showers of New Lexington, next in rank, took command of the regiment and successfully completed the charge that Butterfield had so bravely begun. In the latter part of January, 1864., the Seventeenth re-enlisted and came home to enjoy veteran furlough, and recruit depleted ranks. Upon the expiration of veteran furlough the regiment, with ranks well filled, returned to its place at the front. It was engaged at Resaca, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, and Jonesboro, the last battle of the Atlanta campaign. Colonel Ward having resigned, Captain Showers (now Lieutenant Colonel) assumed command of the regiment, and led it under Sherman on the great promenade to the Atlantic, at Savannah. The regiment was in the campaign of the Carolinas, and took part in the battle of Bentonville, one of the latest of the war. It then marched through Richmond and on to Washington taking a part in the grand review of veteran troops at that place. The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, in July, 1865. Rev. James H. Gardner, who was chaplain of the Seventeenth Ohio, more than two years, was born and brought up in the town of Rehoboth, Perry county, and has many relatives in the county. When the war broke out, he was in the south, at the head of an educational institution, of some kind. The war broke up the college, and Rev. Gardner joined a conference and was appointed to a circuit, a part of which was inside of the union lines. He took the appointment with a view of finding a way out of the Southern Confederacy. As soon as he got inside the Union lines, he abandoned his horse and saddle-bags, reported in the proper way, and was soon among friends and relatives in the tents of the Perry county boys of the Thirty First Ohio. He soon came North, spent a few weeks and returned to the front as Chaplain of the Seventeenth Ohio, in which position he remained until the muster out of the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Showers was captured in the Atlanta campaign, but succeeded after many hardships in making his escape from a rebel
prison, and reached the Union lines in time to lead his regiment in the great "March to the Sea." The distinguished bravery of Captain J. W. Stinchcomb, of this regiment, and the leading part he took in rallying on the second line at Chickamauga, are more fully stated in the sketch of the Thirty-First Ohio. It is enough to say here that he was not unnoticed by brave old General Thomas, being handsomely mentioned in his official report of the battle. SIXTY-FIRST O. V. I.---The principal part of Company G, of this regiment, was enlisted in Perry county, the men coming mostly from Pike, Jackson, Reading and Monroe townships. The company was mainly recruited by Lieutenant Young, though Colonel S. F. McGroarty visited the county, made a number of rallying speeches, and gave his personal efforts and influence to the raising of the men. A brother of Colonel McGroarty became Captain of the Company, when organized. The Sixty-First was organized at Camp Chase in April, 1862, and in May left the camp for Western Virginia, soon after joining General Fremont's army, who in a short time was succeeded by General Pope. The regiment was on hand at Cedar Mountain, but was not actively engaged in the fight. It was engaged at Second Bull Run, and was with the forces that covered the retreat, along the Centerville pike, in the direction of Washington. It was also sharply engaged at Chantilly. It was ordered to join General Burnside, in his operations against Fredericksburg, but before its arrival the battle had been fought and lost. The regiment was warmly engaged at Chancellorville, losing five men killed and a large number wounded. The Sixty-First was of the troops that opened the fight at Gettysburg, being thrown out as skirmishers, met in force, and compelled to fall back in great haste and confusion to Cemetery Hill. The regiment lost heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners. Thomas J. Smith, of New Lexington, Captain of the Ewing Guards, and Commander of the troops in the "Corning War," was taken prisoner at Gettysburg. He was then only about sixteen years old. In September, 1863, the Sixty-First, along with the Eleventh Corps was transferred to the Western army, under General Grant. It left Brandy Station, West Virginia, September 26th, and arrived at Bridgeport, Alabama, October 1st. Soon after the regiment got into a fearful fight at Wauhatchie Valley, in which action Captain McGroarty; the Commander of the Perry County Company, was killed. It also was in the battle of Mission Ridge, after which it was sent to the relief of the National forces at Knoxville, Tennessee, but soon after again rejoined the main army. In March, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted and came home on veteran furlough, of thirty days; after its expiration, much strengthened by new recruits, it returned to the front and joined the army at Rocky Face Ridge, May 7th, and immediately entered upon the Atlanta campaign. The regiment was engaged at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, and in a number of minor affairs, some of which were serious enough to the Sixty-First, at least. After the fall of. Atlanta, the regiment promenaded with Sherman to the sea. It was on the campaign
through the Carolinas, and engaged at the battle of Bentonville. At Goldsboro, North Carolina, the Sixty-First was consolidated with the Eighty-Second Ohio, the consolidated regiment taking the name of the latter. The Perry county boys, with the consolidated regiment, joined in the march through to Richmond, and the grand review at Washington. September, 1865, the regiment was mustered out, paid off and discharged at Columbus, Ohio. The Perry soldiers of the Sixty-First, though not so numerous as those of some other regiments, have a military record unsurpassed by any. Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Chancellorville, Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, Sherman’s March to the Sea, the Campaign of the Carolinas, Bentonville and other minor engagements tell in part the story of the trials, perils and sacrifices of the regiment, a full history of which can never be written. ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-NINTH O. V. I.---Company K, of the One Hundred and Twenty-Ninth, a six months regiment, was enlisted in Perry county, by Captain A. D. S. McArthur and Lieutenant James Taylor, the men coming principally from the townships of Pike, Pleasant, Madison, Monroe and Saltlick. The regiment was organized at Camp Taylor, Cleveland, in August, 1863, and was promptly ordered to active duty, and assigned to the Ninth Army Corps. The regiment left Camp Nelson for Cumberland Gap, joining the forces already congregated at that point, under the command of General Burnside. Cumberland Gap was a strongly fortified position, but when a demand was made for its surrender by the commander of the National forces, the demand was readily complied with, and the whole garrison fell into their hands. The Perry soldier boys were of the opinion that the bloodless victory was due to the strategy of General De Courcy, who paraded his men and batteries in a circle, so as to mislead the rebel Commander to believe that there was a very large force investing his position. After the surrender of Cumberland Gap, the regiment remained in the vicinity until about the first of December, when it left and had repeated skirmishes with the enemy. The regiment operated in East Tennessee all winter, suffering greatly from lack of clothing, provisions and other necessary supplies. But the Perry soldiers endured the hardships and privations better than many of their companions. From East Tennessee the regiment went to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, and from there to Cleveland, Ohio, where it was mustered out of the service in March, 1864. Like all the other short time regiments, it will be observed that the time for which this regiment enlisted was considerably extended. Many of the Perry boys after reaching home, in a few days, or weeks, enlisted in other regiments and again entered the service. ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTIETH O. N. G.---The Legislature of Ohio, at the session of 1863-64, passed a military act providing for a home organization of the Ohio National Guard, for the purpose of protecting the State from actual or threatened invasion. Companies were organized under this law with great rapidity, in nearly all the counties of the
State. In May, 1864, Governor Brough issued a proclamation calling this large body of men into active service. At the time of the call to the field, there were six full companies of men organized under this statute in Perry county. The Perry county companies were ordered into camp at Zanesville, Ohio. They all reported promptly, on a wretchedly inclement day, at New Lexington, and immediately took the cars for the place of rendezvous. These companies, with a number of others from neighboring counties, were organized into the One Hundred and Sixtieth regiment. The Lieutenant Colonel, D.W. D. Marsh, the Major, Henry L. Harbaugh, the Adjutant, Robert F. Hickman, jr., and the Chaplain. Rev. James White, were elected from the Perry county companies. Samuel Lyons, Andrew J. Tharp, David C. Fowler. Wm. H. Spencer, Henry C. Greiner and George Ritchey were the Captains; James T. McCormick, John T. Ball, Levi Bowman, Francis M. Wright, James F. McMahon, John H. Huston, Simeon Hansley, Thomas J. Post, Andrew J. Whipps, Abner M. White, William Stalter, and Austin J. Watts were Lieutenants. These were the line officers from Perry. The companies were all strong in numbers, and, previous to being called out, had been duly equipped, as well as fully uniformed in the National blue. The regiment remained in camp at Zanesville but a few days, when duly mustered into the service, it was soon on its way to Harper's Ferry, the place to which it had been ordered. It was not suffered to remain idle, but was at once sent to work guarding supply trains along the Shenandoah Valley. These supply trains were frequently attacked by Mosby's men and other guerrillas, and skirmishes were at times, of almost daily occurence. In one engagement with Mosby's command, several men in the One Hundred and Sixtieth were wounded, but fortunately none were killed. Thomas Jackson of Somerset was one of the severely wounded. The men of the One Hundred and Sixtieth behaved very gallantly. Fourteen rebels were killed in the action. Mosby learned by dear experience, that it was no fun to capture supply trains in charge of the One Hundred and Sixtieth O. N. G. The regiment was required to march and countermarch, up and down the Shenandoah Valley, most of the time exposed to the fire of skulking bushwhackers, and in continual apprehension of attack by, guerrillas in force. Ohio in the War says: "That of all the Ohio National guards, the One Hundred and Sixtieth, probably, can show the most continued service in the field." Andrew J. Wright, of New Lexington, died in his tent at Maryland Heights. Nathan S. Kelley, also of the same place, took sick and died at Maryland Heights. He was the Republican nominee for County Auditor at the time, and had he lived, would doubtless have been elected. Wright and Kelley were both highly esteemed citizens, and the news of their death dispelled the illusion that the "Hundred Day's Service" was mere play. Private Marlow, of Captain Fowler's company, was captured, and never heard from, and probably died in a rebel prison. On one of the trips down the Shenandoah Valley, the One Hundred and Sixtieth brought along a number of young girls out into "God's Country," as the soldiers were wont to call the North. These girls did
not have a very elegant conveyance, but they got "Out of the Wilderness" safely, nevertheless. One of these girls afterward married a well-known citizen of New Lexington, and yet resides in that town. The One Hundred and Sixtieth was mustered out and paid off at Zanesville, September 7th, 1864, having been in the service four months lacking three days. The conscription of these Hundred Days men worked great hardships in many communities. The men belonged principally to the same localities, that had already contributed heavily in volunteers to the three years service, and, in many cases, there was no one left to plow the corn or save the harvest; but women, wives, sisters and mothers of the absent soldiers, took the farm work in hand, and pushed it with an energy and success, that was one of the many wonderful things of the war period. When the men reached home, after the muster out at Zanesville, it was easy to see that the "Hundred Years War," as sometimes called, had been no holiday. Many of the men were sick and disabled, and those who were not, looked fatigued and haggard, resulting no doubt from irregular and insufficient sleep, as well as almost continual harassments, and apprehensions of attack, while guarding supply trains through an enemy's country, where guerrillas and bushwhackers were almost as thick as blackberries. The One Hundred Days men were not volunteers in the strictest sense; but they turned out cheerfully and promptly at a gloomy period of the war, served their country faithfully and well, and are justly entitled to consideration in any important history of those eventful and perilous times. MISCELLANEOUS---A historical outline has been given of the companies from Perry County which served in the war of the Rebellion. But, in the very nature of things, the full details of this war, as of other wars, must forever remain unwritten. And it should be further kept in mind, that numerous other soldiers from Perry served in the war of 1861, who were not members of any of the companies the history of which has been herein sketched. There were detachments of men from Perry in the Sixteenth, Eighteenth, Thirty-Second, Forty-Sixth, Seventy-fifth, Sixty-Eighth, One Hundred and Twenty-Second, and perhaps other infantry regiments. There were also individual soldiers from Perry in many other infantry regiments. There were detachments of men from Perry in several of the cavalry regiments, notably in the Ninth and Tenth, and individual soldiers in others who enlisted from this county. The county was also represented in the Sharp Shooters, Heavy Artillery, and quite a strong detachment from New Lexington and neighborhood served in the Signal Corps. It is not possible, even were it desirable, to follow these men and their commands through the long, weary and tortuous civil war. Perry county furnished its share of Generals, Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, Adjutants, Quartermasters, Chaplains, Surgeons, Captains, Lieutenants, and about three thousand men in the ranks, who fought, and bled, and suffered, on almost every battlefield and hard march of the great war. They fought in the early battles of the war at
Bull Run, at Rich Mountain, at Wild Cat, and at Mill Springs. Perry boys were also with the noble General Lyon at Wilson's Creek, and afterward made that long wearisome retreat under General Sigel to Rolla, Missouri. Perry soldiers marched with the Regulars in McClellan’s advance up the Peninsula, and participated in the series of disastrous but bravely contested battles that surged around the rebel capital in the summer of 1862. They fought at Fredricksburg, at Chancellorsville, at Second Bull Run, at South Mountain, at Antietam, and at Gettysburg. They were engaged at Shiloh, at Perryville, at Stone River, at Chickamauga, at Mission Ridge, at Chickasaw Bluffs, at Arkansas Post, at Thompson's Hill, at Champion Hill, at Black River Bridge, and in the long, wearisome siege of Vicksburg. They fought at Rocky Face Ridge, at Dallas, at Resaca, at Kenesaw, at Peach Tree Creek, and Jonesboro. They charged at Fort Wagner, at the Wilderness, at Spotsylvania, at Cold Harbor, at Deep Bottom, at Hatcher's Run, at Five Forks, at Fort Gregg, and at Petersburg. They trod the bloody fields of Monocacy, of Winchester, of Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. They were at Franklin, at Nashville, at Bentonville, at Appomattox, and at the capture of Mobile, the closing battle of the war. As members of cavalry regiments, they rode and raided with Sheridan, Stone- man, Wilson, Pleastanton and Kilpatrick. They suffered and died, or endured incredible hardships at Libby, Belle Isle, Andersonville, Salisbury, Lawton and other rebel prisons. They---some of them---made their escape from those prisons, and hiding by day, and walking by night, fed and otherwise assisted by the faithful negroes, after toilsome days and nights of peril, once more reached in safety the Union lines and the starry flag. They died in battle, in camp, in hospitals, on the march, in rebel prisons, every where, and many of them occupy nameless and unknown graves, far distant from home and friends, and all that they loved so well. They cheerfully sacrificed their lives that there might be but one country from the Lakes to the Gulf, and from Ocean to Ocean, and that the Republic established by their fathers might live. THE MORGAN RAID.---The celebrated John Morgan and his troopers, in the famous raid through Indiana and Ohio, took in Perry county on his way. He only raided through two townships, however, coming in on the Sunday Creek road into Monroe township, and going out in Bearfield township, near Porterville. This was in July, 1863. It was in consequence of Morgan's invasion of the North, that Governor Tod ordered out the Militia of Southern Ohio. Morgan, in his northward journey through Athens county, appeared to be heading for New Lexington, and, in fact, he gave out the word that he intended to visit and plunder the town. A citizen of Vinton county, who had for a while resided at New Lexington, followed up the raiders, mingled and talked with some of them, and believing that they really intended to sack the town of New Lexington, made a detour around Morgan's command, and being splendidly mounted, urged his steed along the ridges and valleys, and over the hills, determined to give his friends warning of the threatened danger. The weather was warm, the Vinton county friend had left his home in a hurry, not dreaming of taking so long a ride, and
was minus coat, hat and shoes. Barefooted and bareheaded, with his flowing locks streaming in the breeze, he plied the whip, and his magnificent charger, in a foam of sweat, and with nostrils distended, dashed furiously on. The chivalrous rider's trousers, by the swift motion of the galloping horse, had worked up to the knees, and leaning forward, horse and rider might almost be mistaken for one being. They dashed into town at the south end of Main street, and the entire length of the street was speedily traversed, while every few rods, in a stentorian voice, came the terrifying words, "John Morgan is coming! John Morgan is coming !!" The people of the place, by the daily journals, and private telegrams, were apprised of the movements of Morgan, and knowing that he was not far off, were prepared to believe that he might be coming this way, and they feared that the cry of the friendly horseman might be realized. The men of the town were nearly all in the army. The few that remained held a brief consultation, and two leading citizens were sent out on the road on which Morgan was to come, instructed to surrender the town, with the view of thereby saving a useless destruction of life and property; as, under the circumstances, it was agreed on all sides that no successful resistance could be made. Money and other valuables were hastily secreted, horses were hurried off to supposed places of safety, and numerous persons left town and took refuge in the country. There was anxiety, of course, but no general panic occurred, and most persons calmly and quietly awaited events. But nine o'clock---ten---eleven---twelve---came, and no Morgan and men put in an appearance, and it began to be evident that the great raider had given New Lexington the go-by. But many people remained up all night, and others procured horses and sallied out to learn, if possible, what direction Morgan had taken. It was ascertained, the next day, that when Morgan reached the neighborhood of Sunday Creek cross-roads, he filed square to the right, gave Millertown a visit, and then passed on to Chapel Hill. From this place he went to Porterville, and near this point passed out of Perry into Morgan county. Morgan and his command camped all night on Island Run, near Porterville. From Sunday Creek cross-roads to New Lexington, is about the same distance as to Island Run, where Morgan encamped, and had he not changed his course, and possibly his original intention, New Lexington or neighborhood might have had the doubtful honor of entertaining him and his band over night. The general character of Morgan's raid is well known, and only some of the incidents that occurred in Perry county will be related here. The stores in Millertown and Chapel Hill were sacked, all the whisky that could be found was confiscated, and the farce of buying and paying for a few articles went on, while wholesale robbery and destruction occurred without rebuke or interruption. A plucky lady of Monroe township, who was riding along the road, gave the raiders a piece of her mind. They did not retaliate in words, but gently lifted the lady from the saddle and appropriated her horse. Dr. W. H. Holden, of Millertown, then on a tour of visits to his patients, was promptly relieved of his horse, but was kindly permitted to retain his saddle-bags, which he carried the remainder of the way on his arm, as he trudged homeward on foot. A farmer was hauling a load of hay
along the road. His team was halted, the harness stripped from the horses in a twinkling, and there the farmer sat upon his load of hay, a much astonished and bewildered individual. There was a wool-picking party at the house of a farmer; quite a number of ladies was there and supper was just announced. Morgan's men came in uninvited, appropriated all the seats, and remarked that it was very impolite to take precedence of the ladies, but they were in a great hurry and could not afford to wait. What they left in the way of eatables was hardly worth mentioning. Good fresh horses were everywhere picked up, and the jaded animals turned loose. The raiders also sent out scouting parties right and left, to gather up a fresh supply of horse-flesh. On the night that Morgan was expected in New Lexington, D. W. D. Marsh, Sill Colborn and James R. Carroll, rode out for the purpose of discovering the whereabouts of the rebel force. They struck the trail, followed it up, and just at daybreak, without being aware of the near proximity of the enemy, rode in to the camp at Island Run, near Porterville. They were ordered to halt by some of the band who were on the alert. Marsh laid whip to his horse and dashed off through the woods. Colborn and Carroll thought it would be safer to stay. They parleyed with the raiders, who told them they were prisoners and must go along. Colborn and Carroll were taken some forty miles, and turned loose in Guernsey county. Their horses were, of course, taken by the raiders. They were with the raiders in the skirmish at the crossing of the Muskingum, near Eaglesport, where one citizen was killed, and several of the raiders wounded, one severely. Colborn and Carroll reached home in due time, reporting that they had been treated to a very invigorating ride, though they acknowledge it to have been a rough one. One of the Morgan men got sleepy and fell behind, within the limits of Perry county, and was "gobbled" up as a prisoner. He was brought to New Lexington, and, under all the circumstances, was something of a curiosity. The populace crowded around him, and some remarks not complimentary were made. He did not like the looks of things, and said that all he asked was to be treated as a prisoner of war. He was sent to the military prison at Camp Chase. The raider who was so severely wounded at Eaglesport, on the Muskingum, lay for some weeks at a hotel in Zanesville, but finally convalesced and was sent to a military prison. Hobson's Cavalry were on the trail of Morgan, and only two or three hours behind. Several of the soldiers gave out, came to New Lexington, and slept a day or two in the court house yard. The most they needed was rest and something to eat, which they got, and soon went on their way. Hobson's Cavalry seized fresh horses, but Morgan, coming along first, had the pick. But the pursuers gained on the raiders, nevertheless. This was the last of John Morgan in Perry county, but not the last of the John Morgan scare. Some days after this, and while he and his band of men were yet in Ohio and uncaptured, late one evening, a "solitary horseman " came into New Lexington, announcing that Morgan had been driven back across the Muskingum, and that he was making his way in this direction, this time burning houses, barns and other
property. The horseman referred to had heard of the approach of the Morgan band, seen the fire of the burning buildings, and had indisputable information that it was the Morgan raiders who were doing the dreadful incendiary work. When the astounding news reached New Lexington, Colonel Lynch of Circleville, and a battalion of Pickaway county Morgan pursuers. were at the depot conferring with Governor Tod as to discharge from further service. The command had been around in the wake of Morgan, but being infantry, could do nothing effective in the work, and Colonel Lynch very sensibly asked that they might be discharged. When the messenger brought the report that Morgan was surely approaching. Colonel Lynch hooted at the idea, and said it was impossible. The order discharging the Pickaway battallion was received, but Colonel Lynch, without announcing it, decided to remain over night, organized his command and marched it up the hill. He established a sort of military head quarters in Butler & Marsh's law office, and sent out pickets on all the principal roads leading to town. These faithful sentinels remained out all night, and the people of New Lexington, for the most part, slept in quiet and security. But no raiders made their appearance. The whole thing was a "bugaboo," of the hugest kind. There was no intentional deception, and how the false news of the second coming of Morgan originated, was never satisfactorily ascertained. The Pickaway county volunteers, after their night's vigils, were breakfasted by the ladies, and entertained in the most hearty and hospitable manner, and they were as much honored and respected as though the enemy had been really in the vicinity, and the town in the most imminent danger. The Pickaway boys did, indeed, deport themselves handsomely, and were well treated in return. The next morning they took the train for home. Some little time after this last fright, Morgan and his men were captured in the eastern part of the State. The leaders were not treated as ordinary prisoners of war, but, for a time, found a home in the Ohio State Prison. Morgan and some of his officers escaped therefrom and succeeded in reaching the South. But the great raider did not survive the war. He was shot and killed when on one of his characteristic expeditions, while trying to make his escape from a house where he had remained over night, which was surrounded by Union soldiers, for the purpose of capturing him. He tried to make his exit and was shot dead. THE MARIETTA CAMPAIGN.--- In July, 1863, David Tod, Governor of Ohio, called upon the independent military companies and militia of some fifteen or twenty counties of South-Eastern Ohio, to rendezvous at Marietta, to protect the southern border of the State. The State Militia had recently been enrolled and organized under a statute supposed to meet the emergencies of actual war. This was a wholesale conscription, and the entire militia force of a majority of the townships of Perry promptly reported at New Lexington to take the cars for Marietta. The militia were neither armed nor equipped, but they were determined to obey orders. New Lexington had an independent military
company, commanded by Captain D. W. D. Marsh, and of course it was included in the call, and responded. The conscripts poured in and fairly overwhelmed the town of New Lexington. The "troops" traveled by rail to Zanesville, and then by boat down the beautiful Muskingum, some of the "boys" pathetically singing "The Girl I Left Behind Me." There was much discomfort aboard the boats, but all safely arrived at Marietta, the objective point. The like of the militia camp at Marietta was probably no where else seen during the war. There were no fire-arms and few equipments or conveniences of any kind. But the men lay in camp there two weeks and did the duty required of them. There were several good-sized scares during the short campaign, but no rebel gunboats came up the dark ravines, as sometimes announced, and John Morgan and his troopers did not put in an appearance, though anxiously expected. At length the militia were mustered out, and embarked on boats up the Muskingum, and then traveled by rail to New Lexington. The whole campaign was without casualty, but abounded in fun, if the stories of participants are to be fully credited. The whole demonstration was no doubt designed as a scare, and it probably was not without effect on the notorious John Morgan and other raiders. At any rate, as the events of the war grow dim, many a man will remember that he, at least, was in the Marietta campaign, and a soldier in the service of his country. And it is possible, in the distant future, that men may draw pensions from the United States government, in consideration of their "fourteen days'" service during the great war of the rebellion. THE BARN BURNING SCARE.---In July, 1863, a barn was burned in Madison township, and at the same time one was burned in Hopewell township. These barns were full of grain and the loss was heavy. In the first case there was writing on the walls of the house, threatening to burn it, also, and do sundry other dreadful things. It was alleged that the barn was burned by persons who were disguised and wore masks, and after frightening the lady of the house nearly out of her senses, until she ran across the fields to a neighbor's, the masked men retreated to the woods and became lost to sight. It was just in the twilight of evening that the affair took place, and nothing was done that night, but the next morning the whole country was aroused, and when it was learned that another good barn had been burned, a few miles distant, the alarm was great among farmers, and they all rallied and joined in the effort for the apprehension of the incendiaries. The people of the townships of Madison, Hopewell and Reading, turned out in great force, and large numbers of men were also present from the southern part of Licking county, and the western part of Muskingum. There were miles of men in line, stationed along roads, and many of them armed with such weapons as the country afforded. The fields, woods, ravines and all good hiding places were searched, but no suspicious characters were found. It is possible, of course, that the guilty persons may have mingled in the throng, and even joined in the search. For many nights farmers watched their houses and barns, and scouting parties were constantly on the alert; but as no more burning was done, the interest and dread gradually died away. At this distant
day, and after the lapse of so many years, it is impossible to conceive of the general and widespread excitement that prevailed at that time. The incendiaries were never discovered, and the question of who did set fire to the buildings, is yet shrouded in mystery. But, in some way or other, the burning is believed to have been directly or indirectly connected with the war, and therefore a part of its bitter fruits.