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                               Chapter IV.
                            ARCHAEOLOGY
     THERE are within the bounds of Fairfield County, probably, in all
about twenty ancient works, ascribed to the mound builders, consisting
of mounds, circles and squares, but none of very imposing dimensions.
They are found in nearly or quite every township in the county. The
principal ones are in Greenfield, Bloom, Clear Creek, Hocking, Berne,
Walnut, Rush Creek and Richland. Their form and general appear-
ance does not differ from others found in various parts of the State and
elsewhere. Some of them are simple conical mounds, others are
squares and circles.
     The works at Rock Mill have been regarded as the largest and most
interesting of any in the county. They are situated in Greenfield
township and on the hill a short distance above the upper falls of
Hocking. They consisted, before they were disturbed, of, first, a square
of four hundred and twenty feet on each line, and standing towards
the four cardinal points. The elevation is several hundred feet above
the bed of Hocking, at Lancaster, seven miles down the stream. The
embankments of the square, when the county was first settled, were
about four feet in height.
     In addition to the square, there were originally two circles of the
diameters of one hundred and twenty-five, and two hundred feet, 
respectively. The smaller circle contained a small mound, so disposed
as to overlook all the other works, as well as the surrounding country,
for several miles, in all directions.  There were no appearances to
indicate that anything of the nature of a fosse or moat had ever existed
about either the square or the circles.
     Until within the last few years, the site of these remains was covered
with a dense growth of forest trees and under brush. But this has been
mostly cleared away, and the embankments leveled down, and plowed
over, so that any interest that the works might have possessed for the
antiquarian or archaeologist, is mainly destroyed. The clay of which
the elevations were constructed was different entirely from that of the
hill upon which they stood, and when spread upon the surface by the
leveling process, formed a very noticeable contrast with the native soil,
it being of a bright yellow color. The settlers of the neighborhood say
there is no such clay in the near vicinity. No archaeological remains
were found in these works.
     Very little attempt has ever been made to explore the mounds of
Fairfield county, and what has been done, has resulted in finding only
a few human bones. In some instances bones have been dug up near
the surface, which were believed to be those of the modern Indian, as
they were known to bury their dead in these ancient mounds.
A number of years since, Dr. M. Z. Kreider, of Lancaster, conducted
a careful examination of a mound situated about one mile southwest of
the city, on land now owned by G. A. Mithoff, but at that time known
as the Creed farm. The result of his exploration was the finding of a
few bones and trinkets, probably belonging to some Wyandot warrior.



 

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The most thorough and successful examination conducted in the
county was by Professor E. B. Andrews, some two or three years 
before his death, in the autumn of 1880, at Lancaster. The mound was
situated near Greencastle, in Bloom township. He employed work-
men, and went through and to the bottom of it. The only discovery
made was a large quantity of human bones at the base and center of
the mound. The bones were chiefly those of the head and face, the
long bones having almost entirely disappeared. The specimens to
which the attention of the writer was invited, at the residence of the
Professor, consisted of teeth and portions of the superior and inferior
maxillary bones, and bones of the head and face, with, also, a few 
fragments of the cervical vertebrae. There was one entire skull, and 
several whole and half jaw bones, still retaining the teeth in their sockets.
There were, likewise, a large number of teeth disconnected with the
jaws. Most of the bones and teeth were entirely perfect in form, but
seemed to be disintegrating from exposure to the open air.
     In the anatomy and general structure of the teeth and jaw bones, as
well as those of the cranium, there were no perceptible differences from
those of the Anglo Saxon race. The teeth were sound, though some
of them were from the jaws of very aged persons, as indicated by the
wearing away from attrition. There were, also, the usual signs on the
necks and fangs of old teeth, showing the absorption of the alveolar
bones which form the sockets of the teeth ; and even incrustations of
tartar, or lime, still adhering to the necks of the teeth, precisely as the
dentist of the present day finds the situation in the mouths of his 
patients. In one or two cases the teeth were cupped, or worn down, in
some instances to the very margins of the alveolar sockets, and show-
ing the same glossy and smooth faces now seen in the mouths of people.
In the aggregate there were near a half bushel of these specimens. The
Professor subsequently sent them to some institution of learning. 
Regarding all the circumstances, it seemed probable that they must have
been the teeth and bones of the veritable mound builders, as the 
Indians would scarcely have penetrated to the center of the mound to
deposit their dead. Besides, the Indian custom of burying has been
known to be superficial, or near the surface.
     A mound on the land of William Pannebaker, one mile above
Sugar Grove, was opened a few years since by Dr. Brown of that place,
with no other result than the finding of a few bones, which were prob-
ably those of an Indian. There are three conical mounds near together
in Berne township, which are very symmetrical and beautiful. One of
them is situated on the farm of Dr. Shoemaker, and from its summit
the other two are in view. Their average height is from ten to twelve
feet. A little to the south of the mounds there is a curiously wrought
stone ledge, that is unquestionably a work of art; but, isolated as it is,
its design would be difficult to conjecture, unless as a breast-work
against hostile movements. There are, also, three or four mounds on
the Raccoon, in Rush Creek township, that present interesting fea-
tures, as also in various other parts of the county; but, beyond those
already mentioned, no other examinations have taken place.
     On the farm of Jacob Crawford, four miles east of Lancaster, and
in the north end of Berne township, upon the summit of a considerable

 elevation, are found some highly interesting specimens of stone work.

The area of the summit is several acres, and level, with a full growth
of forest trees. Some of the margins of the hill, especially at the
southwest corner, are precipitous, and faced with out-cropping 
sandstone. Some of the points are exceedingly rugged and romantic.
Near the center of the summit is a stone structure that seems to have
been artificially laid together, and bearing the appearance of great 
antiquity. The material had manifestly been brought from below, as
there is no cropping out on the summit. Taken as a whole, one can
easily imagine an altar, or a rostrum. At other points of the surface,
otherwise smooth, and covered with grass sod, quite a number of 
undressed stones are set in the ground perpendicularly, presenting the
appearance of a modern rude cemetery. The compiler visited these
works in company with Mr. Crawford, whose theory was, that the
summit was a place for the entombment of the dead; and that the
structure near the center was an altar, either for sacrifice or religious
orations. How much of this inspiration is due to the existence of grave
yards and grave stones in the nineteenth century, must be left to 
conjecture.
     On Clear Creek, and in Clear Creek township, not very distant from
Abbot's store, is situated an ancient work that seems to have been 
skillfully engineered. It is a square of two or three acres, and stands 
parallel with the four cardinal points. There are, also, in its vicinity dim
evidences of minor works,
     In what is known as Tarhill hollow, one or two miles northeast of
the Reform Farm, and near the east line of Hocking township, there is



 

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seen a very handsome conical mound, standing solitary and alone.
There are a few ancient works within the county, variously distributed,
but all of minor importance.
     In a lecture given by Prof. Andrews, he expressed the belief that
the bones found in some of the mounds, especially those near the 
surface, were the remains of Indians. While that may be true, it seems
quite probable that those taken from the central base of mounds were
placed there by the architects themselves, as the Indians could not have
reached that point without making extensive excavations, which was
contrary to their known habits. Such excavations, though made even
hundreds of years in the past, would have so disturbed the strata of
earth as to be noticeable in all time to come. No such disturbances
have been discovered.
     The whole surface of Fairfield county, at its first settlement by the
white race, abounded more or less with flint arrow points and stone
axes, known to be Indian relics. The flint was unquestionably obtained
by them from the quarries of Licking and Perry counties, as no flint is
known to exist in Fairfield. Tomahawks, and other Indian relics,
were likewise found upon the surface, and were also turned up by the
plow. All these evidences of the sojourn of a former race are now 
becoming quite rare. It is in fact in every respect as if they had never
been here at all, and history alone tells that once the Hocking valley
and the hills of Fairfield county were alive with the Wyandot and 
Delaware tribes.
 



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                              Chapter V.
                           INDIAN TRIBES

     AT the time of the treaty of Greenville, concluded August 3, 1795, 
the Wyandot tribe occupied the present site of Lancaster. By the terms 
of the treaty, the Indians surrendered all their possessions in the Hocking 
Valley, and soon afterwards a body of them went away to join their 
friends in the Sandusky country. A few of their number, however, 
remained in the valley, and hunting squads of them continued to return 
during the hunting seasons, until 1812.
     Their town was situated on the north bank of Hocking, and on the 
same ground now occupied by the railroad and agricultural works, on 
the southeast border of Lancaster. It was called Tarhetown, after the 
name of their chief, Tarhe. In English, the name was "crane,"and 
hence the town was sometimes called "Cranetown." According to the 
most authentic information attainable, Tarhetown contained, in 1790, 
about one hundred wigwams and five hundred souls. The Wyandot 
tribe is believed to have numbered at that time about five hundred 
warriors. Nothing is known as to how long they had occupied the 
Hocking Valley. All that is known is that they were found here by 
the first white scouts that came up from the settlement at Marietta, to 
explore the valley, soon after that settlement was begun. It was learned  
in after years that they considered the Hocking among their best 
hunting grounds, abounding as it did in all kinds of wild game and fur-
producing animals. Some of them were heard to say that they left 
Tarhetown with a great deal of regret.
     Those who continued to revisit the valley, and to linger about after 
the white settlements began, are said, for the most part, to have been 
entirely civil and well behaved, when well treated, and not under the 
influence of whiskey. A few exceptions occurred, mostly in the way 
of stealing horses, some instances of which may be mentioned.
     In the spring of 1799, Frederick Harmon, with two or three others, 
came from Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, built two or three 
cabins and raised some patches of corn, at a point some five miles east 
of the present city of Lancaster, with the intention of returning in the 
fall to bring their families. A few days before they were to set out, the 
discovery was made that Mr. Harmon's horse had been stolen. An effort 
was made to trace the thieves, but all that could be learned was that 
Indians had been seen in the vicinity of the Hocking, having in 
possession such a horse. But they had two or three days the start, and 
the pursuit had to be abandoned.  Mr. Harmon walked all the way 
back to Westmoreland, a distance of over three hundred miles.
     Whether the horse escaped from the Indians, or whether they traded 
him off, or sold him, was never learned. He was subsequently recov-
ered near Marietta, and was recognized by a brand on his shoulder.
     Another time, the Indians stole two horses in the same end of the
county, and took them to their camp, near where Rushville now is. 
The owner, in searching for his horses, discovered them at the Indian 
camp, and demanded them. The Indians shook their heads. He 
urged his demand, whereupon one of the savages approached him with 
a large knife, and flourished it around the man's head, thereby indicating 
what he might expect if he persisted. He was compelled to go 
away without his property. On the following morning he returned,
bringing with him several of his neighbors, and renewed his demand 
which was still refused, whereupon the men leveled their guns and told 
him to go and untie his horses, which he did, and the matter was ended 
There were also other frequent depredations of the kind, but the horses 
were generally recovered.
     John Ashbaugh, related a wrestling match, between his father and a 
stalwart Indian, whose prowess at never having been beaten, caused



 

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HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

25
him to swagger along in a very self satisfied manner. But in this match 
he was thrown every fall, at which he became very angry, becoming 
silent and moody.  It was only through the interference of his Indian 
friends, that he at last became reconciled.
     Theodore Murphy relates a story of his mother. They lived a mile 
west of the present Rushville. The Indians came to her home almost 
daily for something to eat, and for salt. She always provided for them. 
Although they were friendly, she was afraid of them, and did all she 
could to keep them in a good humor. They were fond of salt, and always 
demanded the half of what she produced. She learned to bring 
out a tincupful at a time, when, upon receiving one-half of it, they 
would go away satisfied.
     At one time, when her husband had to go to Chillicothe, to mill, a 
distance of over forty miles, she took her children and dog and went 
into the fodder house, and staid all night, for fear of the Indians. To 
keep her baby quiet, she kept it constantly at the breast; and through 
fear that the dog would bark, she kept her hand on him.
     When her husband, Edward Murphy, came to look at the land 
upon which he settled, before he made the entry, an Indian showed him 
five excellent springs of water, and tomahawked the trees, so that he 
could find them again. This was in 1802, and the springs are still 
flowing in undiminished quantity and quality.
     William Murphy was a brother of Edward Murphy, and settled in 
the north part of the county about the same time, perhaps one or two 
years earlier. For a number of years he engaged extensively in trade 
with the Indians, by purchasing their furs and peltries in exchange for 
dry goods, and such trinkets as Indians admired, and sometimes a little 
silver money.
     For some unknown reason they became prejudiced against Mr. 
Murphy, and, it was said, threatened his life. Whether there was 
danger or not, he hid himself when Indians were known to be in the 
vicinity, and kept out of the way till they left the settlement.
     A favorite center for the Indians was at and about the Rock Mill, 
probably mainly attracted there by the whiskey manufactured by Love-
land and Smith. Mingling constantly with the white men that came 
about, their habits and movements were observed.  It came to be 
known that they frequently had supplies of fresh lead, and that they 
always had it immediately after their squads returned to camp after two 
or three days absence. This circumstance led to the belief that they 
procured the metal near by. They would sell or give it away, but no 
promise of reward or other logic could ever induce them to tell where 
they procured it. Many thought the mine was at no great distance 
from the Rock Mill, but others believed it to be in the hills south of 
Lancaster.
     For many years the search was maintained in vain. One thing at 
least was true, the Indians procured lead in considerable quantity, and 
there was no place within a hundred miles where it could have been 
purchased in such quantities.
     A serious tragedy at one time was barely averted. The Wyandots 
were on a drunk, for whiskey was plenty, and was sold ad libitum in 
the little log cabin village. They became for some reason greatly
enraged at Joseph Hunter, the pioneer, and resolved to take his life.
     The difficulty began in town. Mr. Hunter and his friends found it 
impossible to appease the whiskey-infuriated savages. He fled to his 
cabin, which stood half a mile west of the village. Soon finding that 
they were on his track, and would be upon him, he told his wife to tell 
the Indians that she did not know where he was, and then grasped his 
rifle and shotpouch and fled to the woods, burying himself in a brush 
heap not far from the cabin, The savages were soon there, and after 
searching the cabin by looking under the beds and in the loft, finally 
concluded that he had taken his gun and gone into the woods. They 
then returned to town, uttering all the way the most demoniac yells. 
Hunter kept himself out of sight a few days, until his enemies became 
sober, and that was the last of it.

     Old citizens relate that at a very early day the boys of both races 
collected on the site of the village, and practiced various sports, such as 
running foot races, hopping, jumping, wrestling, and playing at ball, in 
the most friendly manner. Others speak of the faithfulness of the



 

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HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

27
Indians in keeping their word, and fulfilling their contracts, and of their 
friendship and hospitality to visitors at their camps. Jacob Shaeffer, of 
Clear Creek, says they were the best neighbors he had. But when 
under the influence of whiskey their unreasoning natures became uncon-
trollable, and when irritated they became dangerous. As a rule, the 
Wyandots were not thieves, though they had thieves among them. So 
far as is known, no white person was ever murdered by an Indian within 
the bounds of Fairfield county, after the treaty of Greenville.
     Chief Tarhe is said to have been a noble Indian; in stature, tall, 
and in physical strength and endurance, powerful; in peace, just and 
faithful; in war, terrible. In his old age he had a white wife, who had 
been his captive from her eighth year. Those who saw her spoke of 
her as being thoroughly Indian in every respect, save her white skin 
and red hair. Tarhe's own account of her, was that in one of his pre-
datory excursions on the upper Ohio, he had stolen her from the home 
of her parents when she was eight years old, and brought her to Tarhe-
town, on the Hocking, and that she had been brought up with his tribe, 
and afterwards became his wife.
     The chief's wigwam stood near where the fourth lock on the Hock-
ing canal now is, and close to a large spring that still continues to dis-
charge its waters into the Hocking river. The wigwams of the village 
were constructed of bark, peeled from trees when the sap was flowing, 
in May, and set on poles planted in the ground, joined together at the 
top, forming a conical, or sugar-loaf structure. One side was left open, 
facing a fire kept burning on the outside in summer, but in winter fire 
was built inside, an opening being left at the top for the escape of the 
smoke. Many of the wigwams were still standing at the time of the 
beginning of the whites' settlement, and were not all removed for many 
years afterwards.
     There is no history to show how long the village existed, but it was 
there when the white race came.
     Their burying grounds were in the vicinity. The graves were very 
shallow, as a rule. In making excavations in the surrounding grounds, 
Indian bones are found to this day. At the time of the beginning of 
the white settlement at Lancaster, and for many years afterwards, the 
site of Tarhetown was thickly set with bushes and a few forest trees, the 
undergrowth being chiefly wild plum.
     At the first settlement of the valley there existed little or no evidence 
that the Wyandots had ever practised agriculture. The remains of a 
few peach orchards, are spoken of by the oldest inhabitants; and it may 
be that they raised small patches of corn. The strongest presumption 
is, from all that can be learned, that they lived entirely by the chase.
     The history of the Wyandots, generally, is, that when on the war 
path they were peculiarly a savage and bloodthirsty people. There 
was probably no tribe west of the mountains that surpassed, or equal-
led them, in rapine and murder,and general devastation, especially 
along the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia. Simon Girty, whose 
memory is forever desecrated by the whole civilized world, was for a 
time among them.
     Another Indian village existed within the limits of Fairfield county, 
situated one mile northwest of the village of Royalton, in Amanda
township. It is supposed that the Indians forsook it soon after the
Greenville treaty, as it was found in a dilapidated condition by the 
white settlers at their first coming. The name of the village was Toby-
town, named from chief Toby, who governed there. In General San-
derson's "Brief notes on the early settlement of the county of Fairfield," 
published in 1852, he refers to it as "another village of the Tribe," 
meaning the Wyandot tribe, in these words: "Another portion of the 
tribe then lived at Tobytown," and located it on the site of Royalton. 
The actual site of Tobytown was a mile from Royalton, as has been 
said, and its inhabitants were Delawares. Toby was a Delaware chief 
of inferior rank. The village was small, compared with Tarhetown. 
Its previous history is not known.
     Like the Wyandots, the Delawares continued to revisit the scenes of 
their old home for a number of years after the pale faces came. About 
the year 1812 when the country began to fill with its new owners, 
and game was growing scarce, with their neighbors, the Wyandots, 
they all disappeared and were seen no more.

     Their presence in the west part of the county is well remembered 
by the oldest inhabitants. They are mentioned as having deported 
themselves well, and of giving no cause of complaint on the part of 
their pale faced brethren. But they required kindness and fair dealing, 
and to be kept in a good humor. At that early day, attempts were 
made to educate them in the arts of husbandry and letters, but they 
manifested no disposition to copy after their white brethren in anything 
except in using the gun and drinking whiskey.
     Long after the town had been vacated, and the Indians had left the 
country, relics of their former residence were found, both on the surface 
and below, such as flint arrow-points, stone axes, tomahawks and 
human bones, often accompanied by beads and other trinkets. Neither 
in the vicinity of Tarheton or Tobytown, were there found any  specimens 
of pottery or other art.
     A man named William Clark, some years after the evacuation of 
Tobytown, build a house on the old site, or adjacent land, and in digging 
the earth for a mortar hole, came upon a quantity of silver rings, 
brooches and other ornaments, mingled with the bones of an Indian, 
which indicated that the remains were those of a chief. One of his little



 

HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

28        
sons carried some of the trinkets to his mother, but she, imagining that 
they gave off an unpleasant odor, requested that they be buried again.      
Tobytown was built on both banks of a small stream, chiefly on the 
east bank. The stream was in early times called Toby Creek, after the 
name of the chief, and was so marked on the early maps of the county. 
Afterwards the name was changed to Little Walnut, by which it is now 
known.
     The Indians who remained about Tobytown drank whiskey freely, 
whenever they could procure it, and when under its influence, easily 
became enraged. The Clark family settled at Tobytown in 1799, at 
a time when they had but few neighbors, and most of those at consid-
erable distances. They stated in after years, that they always got 
along with the Indians in a friendly way; but that when they had 
whiskey, they found it best to let them have their own way, deeming 
prudence the better part of valor.  Squire Cole relates,  that
Mrs. Clark told him more than twenty years ago, that on one occasion 
when the Indians were drinking, a number of them came to her house 
one day and demanded whiskey. Being afraid of them, she managed 
to slip away with her children out of their sight, and keep hidden until 
they left to continue their search somewhere else.
 



 

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HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

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                              Chapter VI.
                   SURVEYORS --- REFUGEE LANDS
     Very soon after the treaty of Greenville, the general government 
directed the survey of the public lands lying within the bounds of the
territory now composing the counties along the Hocking valley, with
the view no doubt of bringing it into an early market, by which immigra-
tion and settlement of the county would receive early attention. The
surface of the present Fairfield county was among the first to be 
sectioned off. It was laid out in full sections, first, of six hundred and
forty acres, and subsequently subdivided into half and quarter sections,
for the convenience, of purchasers, and for the greater encouragement
of a rapid settlement of the county. The section lines were, without
any exceptions, run to correspond with the four cardinal points of the
compass, for the better convenience of forming townships and ranges,
each full section being of the dimension of one mile square. Thus the
townships of Fairfield county, in conformity to the original surveys,
have their border lines due north and south, and east and west. The
average township of the county is a six mile square of thirty-six sections. 
The variations from this dimension are shown elsewhere; but all
maintaining the same lineal direction. This is within the bounds of the
present limit of the county. All the surveys remain precisely as first
made. There are, however, great inconveniences constantly arising in
regard to bounds, and corners and lines, owing to the lack of carefully
prepared and preserved plattings and permanent corner stones.
Scarcely a piece of land of any dimension can be, or ever is transferred,
without the employment of a surveyor, whose principle business seems
to be to find the original bounds. After all, with the best that be done,
frequent misunderstandings and litigations arise.
     The original field notes and plats of each respective surveyor, being
private property, have been laid aside, and are probably mostly lost.
The sections and city lots are marked by lines on the maps and plats,
but each man's farm, or corners, are not. If there are corner stones,
they are sometimes hard to find. The same difficulties frequently arise
in trying to find just where one man's city lot stops and his neighbors
begins. It is often set up, that somebody's wall or fence is a few inches
or feet over on somebody else. These are difficulties that it would seem
should not exist. It would seem that the surface of terra firma should
be so well platted and marked, that the only business of the surveyor
would be to measure off portions of the land, sold, or to be transferred.
     The names of all the original surveyors of land now within Fairfield
cannot be ascertained. They did their work, the fruits of which are
found on the maps, perfect or imperfect, as the case may be. Beyond
what is etched and printed, all else they did is lost. Others follow
them to find, or try to find, how near they were right. Quite a number
of law suits have arisen in Lancaster upon disputed lines, sometimes
involving individuals, and sometimes the city in expense more or less
onerous. A suit about an original line occurred three or four years
since between the city and the Cox heirs, that was attended with consid-
erable expense on both sides, and in which the city lost the case. It
grew out of a difficulty as to where the original line of Zane's section
was. Another litigation has been going on, and not yet settled, between 
the heirs of S. McCabe and Christ Rudolph, about one or two
feet on the dividing line between their adjoining lots. In this case sev-
eral times the value of the disputed ground has been paid in costs and
attorney's fees, besides getting up a family war, of which the end is
not yet. It is a matter of considerable doubt to-day, whether any 
surveyor could find the original lines of Zane's section of one mile square,
on which the city of Lancaster stands, for they did not quite correspond 
with the subsequent sectioning, nor with the township lines.
Among those known to have been engaged in the government surveys,
at the beginning of the settlements, were James Dunlap, Elnathan
Schofield and Samuel H. Smith. There were also others in the service;
but these were perhaps the principal surveyors. Mr. Schofield did a
large amount of the work, probably more than any one man in the
field. He surveyed the lands as far down Hocking as below the falls,
at Logan, but especially in the east part of the county.
     The titles to all lots of ground on Zane's section, which make up the
body of the city of Lancaster, are entirely secure, and are liable to no
greater difficulties regarding bounds than are any city lots elsewhere.
But on the outskirts, where lots border, or are supposed and claimed to
border, on the original line of the Zane section, difficulties are likely to
occur, and have already occurred. The Cox heirs vs. the city of 
Lancaster, before referred to, is a case in point, because on the line. A
number of surveyors were called to settle the dispute, by fixing the
original line, one, from an adjoining county. It may be so in the other
cases. The line is lost; and the oldest citizens differ materially and
widely as to where it originally was. The chief difficulty is that the
location does not correspond with the established sections.
     REFUGEE LANDS.---The history of what is known as the Refugee
lands is somewhat confused. Historians have described it variously
as to its extent and number of acres. In some statements its length
from west to east has been given at eighteen miles, while others make
it double that, and more. In one statement the length was given at
sixty miles. Without attempting to reconcile these discrepancies, it
may be stated, generally, that the tract is supposed to have contained
one hundred thousand acres, and that it was a narrow strip of four and
a half miles in width, and extended from the Scioto River, east, in a
due line. Upon the hypothesis that the tract contained one hundred
thousand acres, that would give it an eastern extension of near fifty
miles, if its width was four and a half miles, which is probably nearly
correct. Two miles of this strip belongs to Fairfield county, running
along the northern margins of Violet, Liberty and Walnut townships.
The other portion of it, of the width of two and a half miles, lies over
the line within the county of Licking, corresponding with the width of
Fairfield.



 

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31        
The history of this tract of land is as follows: During the Revolu-
tionary war, there were certain men of Canada and Nova Scotia, who
sympathized with, and rendered aid to the United States, some of them
joining the American Army. For this lack of loyalty to the crown of
Great Britain, that government confiscated their possessions. For their
co-operation with the colonists, in their struggle for independence, the
government of the United States caused this strip of land to be surveyed
and set apart for this use.
     To what extent they entered upon it, is not known; but the 
remainder was subsequently sectioned off and sold as Congress land.
 

 

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                              Chapter VII.
                         PIONEER HISTORY
     In April, 1798, Captain Joseph Hunter, arrived from Kentucky, and
settled on the Hocking, half a mile west of the present city of Lancaster,
and a few rods north of the Zanesville and Maysville Pike. This worthy
man did not move into a populous region, but the fact that his nearest
neighbor on the east, lived somewhere near Zanesville, and on the west
at Chillicothe, did not deter him from making a stand to contest the
ground with Dame Nature, who had held the territory undisputed for
so long, and who is both a help and an obstacle to advancing civiliza-
tion everywhere. Captain Hunter was unquestionably the first white
man, who settled in the Hocking Valley, and he of all others is entitled
to the honor of having established the county of Fairfield. He died in
1829, and was buried near the spot where his hand had first marked
"human progress," in indelible characters. His wife died in 1870, at 
the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Castle, of Lancaster. The work
begun by Captain Hunter, was destined to be helped forward by brave
hearts and willing hands, and in May a number of settlers found their
way into the territory now included in Fairfield county, among whom
were Nathaniel Wilson, Sr., Robert Cooper, Isaac Shaffer, John and
Allen Green, John and Joseph McMullen. These all settled about
three miles west of where Lancaster now stands, and within the limit of
Hocking township.*
     Thrown upon their own resources, in a fertile, but new and wild region, 
these adventurers found that their lot would henceforth be one of
hardship and inevitable privation, but they faced their self-imposed trials
bravely, and after creating a shelter for their families and limited worldly 
goods, tickled the earth so effectively, that she laughed back with a
harvest of corn the same year.
     This was the beginning. But where the necessity for brave men and
true presents, responses are always abundant, and in the spring of 1799
a general tide of immigration made mighty breaches in the forests,
which for centuries had stood unscathed by the attempts of the red man
for a mere animal subsistence. But mind was now exercising her 
dominion over matter and these passive grants must bow.
     One of the first necessities of that period was to get to the most 
desirable lands to which the trace could not be followed. When the 
settlers had wagons, the tedious process of cutting a road through the
woods with axes was the only resource, and required unlimited patience
as well as great muscular exertion. Pack horses could generally be led
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
*The names of subsequent settlers, by townships, will be found in the respective town-
ship histories.
between the trees, where a "blazed" route had already been laid. Roads
through the settlements or to the county seat were obtained through the
united efforts of the settlers to derive benefit therefrom. A "blaze" was
simply a large chip cut from the trees between which the route lay; the
"blaze" of course becoming unnecessary when a path had been worn,
unless after a fresh fall of snow, when the first one to make the trip 
required to bring it again into use. Hickory bark torches were employed
to follow one of these "blazed" routes at night.
     For many years there were no bridges, and when the water at the
usual fording places was so high as to forbid either wading or swimming,
it only remained for the traveler to tarry, till the overflow had been
carried off, and the stream fallen to something like its usual channel.
Thus the elements often interfered with the best laid plans of the 
settlers---much oftener than in these days of sublime engineering 
achievement.
     The pampered epicure and the enterprising and public spirited 
citizen of to-day are almost equally ignorant of the true import of the
words, "pioneer times;" for the "short and simple annals of the poor"
are not the most eagerly sought, though they are generally instructive
and pathetic pages in the book of history; and the customs, laws and
superstitions of the men and women, who laid the foundation for this
broad and lofty plane of civilization have already but the place of a
child's fairy tale, in every day life. That the thinking people of to-day
fail to accord the full meed of praise to those early struggles is not due
to ingratitude, but to an imperfect conception of the debt owed them.
That which now seems so full of poetry and romance was to them but
the monotony of every-day existence, and that which now seems 
delightful primitiveness was to the pioneers only a weary, painful, and all
but disheartening struggle for a bare subsistence. They had no leisure,
if they had a desire, to transmit their simple tale to posterity, for it
seemed not that their deeds possessed any degree of heroism or merit,
only continued hardships and toil. Thus the customs, laws and super-
stitions of the early pioneers of Fairfield county have had a narrow
escape from being consigned to the graves of their possessors.
     The settlement of a family in Fairfield county, for at least two decades 
of the present century, meant plenty of "elbow room," but it also
meant unremitting toil. The rude cabin had to be built, and it was 
generally necessary to have a crop of corn planted immediately, for,
although game was abundant and varied, the beasts of burden, upon
which the settler was so dependent, were not carnivorous, and even the
family of the pioneer could not subsist entirely upon animal food. The
truck patch was the next necessity, and as nature had never been taxed
for the maintenance of man, she was lavish in her responses to his 
petitions for food.
     The law of reciprocity was rigid, and the pioneer was compelled
both to receive and grant assistance in making these wild places 
habitable. Thus the men felled trees, notched, trimmed and raised the
logs to their places in the rude dwelling; rolled logs, split rails, fenced,
and cut out roads together; the women spun, wove, quilted, and, 
ultimately, pared apples, made apple-butter and soap, and picked wool in
company.



 

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There is little doubt that the "Rock Mill," built by Hezekiah Smith
and Joseph Loveland, in the fall of 1799 was the first structure of the
kind in the county. It was built of logs, and wedged in between the
rocks, so that the grist had to be taken in at the gable, and let down to
hopper by a rope. Smith and Loveland were both Yankees, and pos-
sessed the full measure of Yankee shrewdness in all that had to do with
money-getting; and it was not long after they began to serve the
public as millers until they went into the distillery business, and made
whisky for Indians and white men.
     Before Fairfield county was half a dozen years old, its surface was
dotted by dozens of still-houses. In those days whisky was regarded
as a household necessity much more than now. Everybody drank. It
was respectable and fashionable. The bitters were taken in the morning 
before prayers, and the last thing at night. Doubtless the liquor
was as pure as it was possible to make it, or at least contained nothing
worse than the strychnine and nicotine compound of to-day; but the
same paradoxical ideas regarding its qualities existed then as now, and
men drank it in the winter to sustain animal heat, and in the summer to
counteract the same; and, despite its purity, pioneer whisky made red
noses, and ragged raiment, and empty larders. Whisky was generally
passed around at funerals, but just what the meaning of this Custom
was, is hard to say---perhaps to drown sorrow. The green glass bottle,
with its long neck, was passed around, and to render the fellowship
closer, each drank from the same small spout.
     Not only was assistance given those able to repay in kind and degree, 
but the helpless were well provided for. The settler who became
disabled by sickness or accident had no fear that his pressing work
would remain neglected. His crops were tended and gathered; his
stock cared for; his firewood cut, and all without expectation or desire
for reward; the golden rule being the only incentive. When dangerous 
or protracted sickness visited the humble home of the pioneer, his
neighbor, perhaps half a score of miles distant, held it no less than his
bounden duty to minister to his wants. Even the presence of death
was made lighter to bear by the ready, practical sympathy sure to be
offered.  The expense attending a pioneer funeral was light, being
limited to the cost of coffin and shroud. The measure of grief was not
seen in the nodding plumes, draped bier and long procession of magni-
ficient equipages. The body was robed for its dreamless repose by
familiar hands; the grave dug, the body placed therein, and the little
mound raised by those who had perhaps been associated with the 
departed one in clearing the very spot where the weary body was 
destined to find its ultimate rest. The widow's "cruise of oil," or "measure 
of meal," was not suffered to fail, and her fuel was provided, her
grist taken to mill, and all as freely offered as thankfully received.
     The privations of the, pioneer in the matter of clothing arose not so
much from the lack of raw material as from an absence of implements
and tools for working it up.  After the first two or three years, and
when the supplies brought to the frontier ran low, the settler had usually 
a few sheep to furnish him wool for clothing, and an occasional beef
was killed, and this furnished leather for shoes, of which one pair was
the yearly allowance. Small tan-yards were established through the
county at an early day, and the leather tanned on the halves. If a man
had two hides, he was especially fortunate, for he could then possess a
side of upper and one of sole leather. The stock was sometimes made
up by the head of the family, and sometimes by the itinerant shoe-
maker. No thought of going shopping for clothing ever entered the
head of the early pioneer. Nearly every house had its spinning-wheel
and loom, and if a man had no sheep he bartered for wool sufficient to
clothe his family. Fulling mills sprang up through the newly opened
country, and hither the rough but serviceable "home spun" was brought
to receive final treatment before being made up. Fulling was charged
for by the yard. At the fulling mills the cloth was sometimes colored,
though the latter work was more often performed where the cloth was
woven. Black, brown and drab dyes were most generally employed.
The great coats were nearly always drab, and made with "shingled
capes:" i. e. from two to four overlapping capes, regularly graduated
in size, the smallest or upper one being about six inches deep. The
number of capes or shingles was considered a sort of measure to the
wearer's title to gentility---or, at least, of his pride. An amusing story
is told of the wedding coat of a young man then looked upon as a
leader of fashion. The material had been woven and dyed after the
most approved mode of the time, and taken to a local seamstress, whose
skill was highly lauded. In due time the coat was returned, and so far
as appearances went, was perfect. But when the owner tried it on he
found that he could not lower his arms to his sides. The sleeves had
been sewed in upside down, and the expectant groom was obliged to
postpone the ceremony until the error could be remedied.

     Sheep and cattle were the main dependance for clothing and shoes,
and it will be pertinent in this connection to mention the raising of these,
as well as other live stock.  Many of the emigrants brought one or



 

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more milch cows. It was not so difficult to winter cattle, but epidemic
diseases were more frequent and more fatal than now, and the pioneer
sometimes found himself without a single cow in the winter season, and
with small children to whom milk was almost an imperative necessity.
murrain was quite frequent, and hollow horn greatly troubled the
milch cows.
     The first sheep brought into the county soon became unhealthy, and
many died, and it was several years before they became acclimated.
The principal malady was a species of influenza, or catarrh, which, if
allowed to become chronic, was fatal. It was unquestionably a form of
the disease common to horses, and known as glanders. The disease
was at that time deemed contagious, but it is more probable that the 
remote cause was general. Foot rot was also common, and not being as
thoroughly understood as now, generally terminated fatally.
     Hogs were introduced at an early day, and were far less liable to
disease than either horses, cattle or sheep. They bred rapidly, and,
with the exception of the kidney worm, were but lightly afflicted in
any way.  In the wild state of the country many small droves strayed
from the plantations, and in a very few years the woods contained large
numbers of "wild hogs." The hills south of Lancaster were especially
rich in this kind of game, which haunted that locality in search of
acorns, upon which food they thrived and generally kept in a good 
order through the winter. Many families relied entirely on these droves
of wild hogs for their winter's supply of pork. Sometimes the settlers
managed to keep their ear-mark on a drove of wild hogs, and thus 
established their ownership. All domestic animals, from the necessities
of the case, being allowed more or less liberty, it was a matter of law
that each stock owner should possess a peculiar mark, called an ear-
mark, because generally made on the ear, although with horses the
mark was usually burned into the shoulder. This mark was recorded
in a book, kept by the township clerk, and was selected with especial
reference to its dissimilarity with the mark of any other man in the
township; and when litigations arose over the dispute of ownership of
stock, the book was brought into court, and the mark on the disputed
animal compared with the record. Speaking of wild hogs, calls to
mind a story told by Henry Leonard, of Liberty township. More than
sixty years ago Father Gundy,of that township, contracted forty head
of fat hogs to Mr. Buckingham, of Zanesville, for one dollar and fifty
cents per hundred, net weight, which, according to the custom of the
day, was to be found by deducting one-fifth of the gross. Gundy drove
his hogs to Zanesville, a distance of forty miles, but Buckingham would
not take them, saying that the market price was only one dollar and
twenty-five cents Gundy declined to sell his pork at any such figure, and
turning away, walked back to his home in Liberty township, leaving
the hogs to care for themselves. Within three weeks every hog of the
forty was back on the Gundy farm. Almost the entire distance traveled
was a wilderness. Gundy afterwards got his price, one dollar and fifty
cents, at Chillicothe.
     The wild turkey was a great favorite with the people of that time,
and could be obtained with very little trouble, as vast flocks of this
royal game then roamed the whole country. But the white man's rifle,
and his ruthless destruction of the favorite haunts of the bird, soon
thinned the flocks out, so that it became a question both of strategy and
markmanship to bring one down. Even the pioneer's grain field would
not tempt this wary and suspicious bird to stay, after the woods became
more scanty. Experiments have shown that the wild turkey cannot be
domesticated. Eggs brought from their haunts have been hatched 
under the well domesticated barnyard hen, but when the turkey became
half-grown, he seemed to forget any obligation he might be under to his
foster-mother and soon disappeared, preferring the life led by his 
ancestors, who held a place in his affections far above any ties of adop-
tion. Fabulous stories are told of the enormous flocks of wild turkeys
seen here fifty or sixty years, ago. It is said that a Philadelphia mer-
chant, about that time, took a trip through the West, and on his return
had business in the neighborhood of Newark. This finished, he hired
a man to carry him to Zanesville. Their route lay through Hog Creek
valley, which was famous for its groves of beech nuts. The turkey is
very fond of beech nuts, and the remembrance of this fact caused the
driver to volunteer the statement ,that he had seen, in that locality, over
a thousand wild turkeys at one time. The merchant, a very tyro in
backwoods lore, seemed inclined to shave the driver's story at least
seventy-five per cent, but it was finally concluded to submit the subject
to the man with whom they were to take dinner, an old pioneer, and a
famous hunter. At the table, the driver boldly plunged into the subject, 
and a direct interrogatory as to the largest number of turkeys ever
seen in the valley, at once caused the man to reflect a moment, and
then came the reply, with all the positiveness of one who considers
himself indisputable authority: "Wall, I reckon about twenty 
thousand !"
     But the wild turkeys and wild hogs were by no means the most
troublesome dwellers in the forests. Wolves swarmed over the territory 
in great numbers during the first years of Fairfield county; and
the settlers soon learned that foot rot and influenza were not the only
enemies from which they must protect their sheep. The sheep were
placed before dark in close pens, built of heavy logs, and from night-
fall to daybreak, the wolves would keep up their hungry howls, and
woe to any unfortunate strays, who had been overlooked in penning up
the flock. Their bones, cleaned and polished by the rough tongues of
the marauders, would greet the eyes of the frontiersman, who came
down in the morning to liberate his frightened sheep, having heard the
din of the rapacious creatures during the night with complacent satis-
faction, confident that his property was safe from all possible harm.
Wolves rarely attacked a human being, but for this the settlers are 
entitled to as much credit as the wolves, for the pioneer seldom ventured
far from his clearing at night alone. The wolves would howl around
the sugar camps at night, but as they share with all beasts of prey a
wholesome dread of fire, a live brand from under the boiling saps
thrown among them always secured the sugar makers a welcome 
immunity from their company.
     Panthers were occasionally seen, but they generally found prey
enough in the forests, and when this began to fail them, they had for
various reasons about concluded to decamp. The rifle, with its small,



 

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patched ball, was, in the hands of the intrepid hunter, a formidable foe,
and even had not large numbers of these been destroyed, they, in com-
mon with wild turkeys, wolves, and bears, were unwilling to stay and
become part of civilized society, if even permission had been granted
them. But one instance is related of any fatal attack on the human
species by these savage beasts, among the settlers of Fairfield county.
A woman, living in what is now Violet township, went into the woods to
look after her cows. Her protracted absence alarmed the family, and
going in search of her, they found her body lying in the woods partially
devoured, and surprised a large panther in the immediate neighborhood.
One of the arms was entirely devoured, and the body horribly mutilated.
     The squirrels, raccoons, blackbirds, and crows were a source of
great annoyance and inconvenience to the farmer of the early days
The birds gave the most trouble when the corn was first planted, while
the stalks were small and tender. They would follow the rows, and
make systematic business of destroying the farmer's work, and the
crops had frequently to be replanted part or wholly. This was not so
hard to bear when the season was forward, but it was as apt to occur
when the crops had barely time to mature before frost might reasonably
be expected, as at any other time. The squirrels were still more ruthless 
in their attacks; for they made their appearance in the cornfield in
August and September, and when corn is in the milk; that is, when it
is just right for the table in the form of "roasting ears," a slight injury
by beak of bird, or tooth of squirrel, is sufficient to prevent it from 
acquiring a good, sound, plump grain; and the squirrels came in such
numbers, and were so dainty in their feasting-perhaps eating but a
few grains from each ear---that scarcely enough sound corn was left in
a large field to supply the table of the rightful owner. The raccoon ate
what he wanted whenever he chanced to stop, but he carried on his raids.
at night, and was, therefore, almost as hard to combat as the squirrel.
     Fairfield county was formally declared by Governor St. Clair, during 
the session of his territorial council, on the 9th of December, 1800,
about two years before Ohio was admitted to the Union as a State. The
area of Fairfield county was originally four times as great as now, 
embracing all of the present county of Licking, nearly all of Knox, 
probably a portion of Richland, portions of Pickaway and Hocking, and
extending into Perry some distance east of Somerset. The name of
"Fairfield " is suggestive of the broad, beautiful lands lying at the head
of the Hocking Valley to-day, and the possibilities open to these hardy
pioneers doubtless prompted them to name the district, in accordance
with their prophetic views.
     Just one month before this formal declaration of Fairfield county,
Lancaster had been laid out, and lots sold, so by the same authority it
was named as the county seat, and dubbed "New Lancaster."  The
first contraction of the original bounds of the county, was the creation
of Licking county, in 1808, and the northern boundary of Fairfield was
thus established as it has since remained. Before that, the city of 
Newark was a part of Fairfield county. On the 12th of January, 1810,
Pickaway county was formed, and the western boundary of Fairfield
thus established, has been since changed, but slightly. Perry county
sprang into existence in 1817, and thus fixed the limits of Fairfield on
the east. Hocking county on the south, was formed March 1st, 1818;
but this boundary has since been somewhat changed. Nearly all of
Auburn and Perry townships were stricken from Fairfield, about thirty
years ago, and attached to Hocking county. The townships originally
embraced in Fairfield county, were, Hocking, Berne, Clear Creek,
Greenfield, Licking, Amanda, Pleasant, Clinton, Thorn, Richland,
Reading, Pike, Jackson, Falls, Perry, Auburn and Salt Creek-17.
Many of them embraced a large territory, and some were for many
years very sparcely settled. The townships of Fairfield county at this
writing are: Amanda, Berne, Bloom, Clear Creek, Greenfield, Hocking, 
Liberty, Madison, Pleasant, Richland, Rush Creek, Violet, Walnut 
and Lancaster---14.
     The population of this county in 1820, the first year of the decennial
census, was 13,508; in 1830, 24,753; in 1840, 31,858; in 1850, 30,264;
in 1860, 30,623; in 1870, 31,149; in 1880, 34,283. The decrease in
population between 1840 and 1850, is due to a large emigration to 
California and the less remote West, during that decade.
     The position of Fairfield county, both geographically and topo-
graphically is an important part of its history, situated at the head of
the Hocking valley, Lancaster, its county seat, becomes of necessity the
outlet or eye of the valley as far south as Athens, by its canal and 
railroads. Fairfield, therefore, is within and a part of the Hocking 
Valley. Fifty years ago the Hocking Valley was little known to any but
its immediate residents. Now, by reason of its mineral wealth, no citizen 
of this Republic, who takes an active interest in her commercial
affairs, and especially in mining matters is ignorant of her location and
resources. For fifty years the stage running between Maysville and
Zanesville, only stopped at Lancaster long enough to take meals and
change horses, and the traveler of the day was ignorant of the resources
lying just south of the station, which was merely looked upon as a con-
venient place to recruit horseflesh and appease the cravings of hunger.
Even the citizens of Lancaster, previous to the opening of the canal,
knew about as much of the true wealth of the valley, as they did of the
geological formations of the South Sea Islands. But this was not to
continue; a wise Creator had not prepared fuel scores of centuries 
before the advent of those for whose convenience it was intended, only
that they, despising or neglecting their opportunities, should lack for
what lay at their very feet. But these opportunities were not slighted;
and soon the people of the Hocking Valley had discovered a greater
wealth within their grasp, than could be obtained by the most patient
pursuit of pastoral or scholarly or sedentary employments; for coal and
salt and iron were discovered, and the canal was dug and operated, and
soon found too slow, and was superceded by the swifter, and costlier
and noisier steam-giant; and, the attention of engineers and capitalists
was engrossed in calculating and developing the resources of this vast
region; and a few years have sufficed for raising the Hocking Valley
from obscurity to a place among the richest mineral posessions of this
populous and wealthy and happy country. Immediately north of this
great field of industry and wealth, blocking the outlets of this now 
famous valley, is Fairfield county; and through it must necessarily pass,
in all time to come, the chief products of this vast mining region.



 

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                              Chapter VIII.
                GEN. GEORGE SANDERSON'S NOTES
     General Sanderson came from Kentucky to the Hocking Valley,
with his father, in 1798, when he was a boy, and spent his long life in
and about Lancaster. He was identified with the beginning and progress 
of the town and county, and filled several positions of trust and
honor, and died in 1871, at a ripe old age.
     About the year 1851, he prepared a small pamphlet of some sixty
or seventy pages, which he entitled "A brief history of the early 
settlement of Fairfield county." The pamphlet was published by "Thomas
Wetzler, then of Columbus, and was distributed variously over the
county; but at the end of thirty years, the compiler of this work with
great difficulty and search, at last unearthed a single copy in a mutilated 
condition. Extracts from its pages follow, which, though in part a
repetition of matter incorporated in other pages of this volume, will be
excused, because a history of Fairfield county would be incomplete,
without the notes of General Sanderson. His sketches were, in fact,
outside of its political and religious history, the only history of the
county, ever written. The pamphlet formed the text of Howe's History 
of Ohio, so far as Fairfield county was concerned. But the extracts 
are chiefly valuable, on account of the familiarity of their writer
with the scenes he describes. The following are extracts:
     "The present generation can form no conception of the wild and
wilderness appearance of the county in which we now dwell, previous
to the settlement of the white people. It was in short a country,

Where nothing dwelt but beast of prey,
Or men as fierce and wild as they.

     The lands watered by the sources of the Hocking River, and now
comprehended within the present limits of the county of Fairfield, were,
when discovered by some of the settlers of Marietta, owned and occu-
pied by the Wyandot tribe of Indians, and were highly prized by the
occupants as valuable hunting grounds, being filled by almost all kinds
of game and animals of fur. The principal town of the Nation, stood
along the margin of the prairie, between the mouth of Broad Street and
Thomas Ewing's canal basin, and extending back as far as the base of
the hill, south of the Methodist Church. It is said that the town 
contained, in 1790, about one hundred wigwams, and five hundred souls.
It was called Tarhe, or in English, Cranetown, and derived its name
from that of the principal chief of the tribe. The chief's wigwam stood
upon the bank of the prairie, near where the fourth lock is built on the
Hocking Canal, and near where a beautiful spring of water flows into
the Hocking River. The wigwams were built of the bark of trees, set



 

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43
on poles, in the form of a sugar camp, with one square open, facing a
fire, and about the height of a man. The Wyandot tribe at that day
numbered about five hundred warriors, who were a furious and savage
people. They made frequent attacks on the white settlements along
the Ohio River, killing, scalping and capturing the settlers, without 
regard to sex, age or condition. War parties on various occasions
attacked flat boats descending the river, containing emigrants from the
Middle States, seeking new homes in Kentucky, by which, in many
instances, whole families became victims to the tomahawk and scalping
knife.
     "The war chief had a white wife in his old age. She was Indian in
every sense of the word, except her fair skin and red hair.  Her history, 
as far as I have been able to learn it, is this: Tarhe, in one of his
raids on the frontier settlements along the upper Ohio, near Wheeling,
had taken her prisoner and brought her to his town on the Hocking.
She was then about eight years old, and never having been reclaimed
by her relatives and friends, she remained with the nation, and 
afterwards became the wife of her captor.
     "On the 17th of May, 1796, Congress, with a view, no doubt, to an
early settlement of their acquired possessions by the treaty of Green-
ville, passed an act granting to Ebenezer Zane three tracts of land, not
exceeding one mile square each, in consideration that he would open a
road on the most eligible route between Wheeling, Virginia, and
Limestone, (now Maysville,) Kentucky. Zane performed his part of
the contract the same year, and selected one of his tracts on the Hocking, 
where Lancaster now stands. The road was only opened by blazing 
the trees and cutting out the under brush, which gave it more the
appearance of an Indian path, or trace, than a road, and from which
circumstance it took the name of Zane's trace---a name it bore many
years after the settlement of the country. It crossed the Hocking at a
ripple, or ford, about three hundred yards below the turnpike road,
west of the present town of Lancaster, called the crossing of Hocking.
This was the first attempt to open a public highway through the interior
of the Northwestern Territory.
     "In 1797, Zane's trace having opened a communication between the
Eastern States and Kentucky, many individuals in both directions, 
wishing to better their conditions in life by emigrating and settling in the
back woods, then so called, visited the Hock-Hocking for that purpose;
and, finding the country unsurpassably fertile and abounding with
springs of the purest water, determined to make it their new home.
     "In the spring of 1798, Captain Joseph Hunter, a bold and enter-
prising man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky and settled on
Zane's trace, upon the bank of the prairie west of the crossings, and
about one hundred and fifty yards north of the present turnpike road.
Captain Hunter cleared away the brush, felled the forest trees, and
erected a cabin, at a time when he had not a neighbor nearer than the
Muskingum and Scioto Rivers. This was the commencement of the
first settlement in the upper Hocking Valley; and Captain Hunter is
regarded as the founder of the flourishing county of Fairfield.  He
lived to see the county densely populated, and paid the debt of nature
in the year 1829.
     "The general government directed the public domain to be surveyed. 
The lands were first laid off in full sections, and subsequently
in half and quarter sections.   Elnathan Schofield, our late fellow 
citizen, was engaged in that service.
     "In 1800, 1801 and 1802, emigrants continued to arrive and settle-
ments were formed in the most distant parts of the county, cabin-raisings, 
clearings and log-rollings were in progress in almost every direction. 
The settlers lent each other aid in their raisings and other heavy
work requiring many hands. By thus mutually assisting one another,
they were all enabled, in due season, to provide themselves cabins to
live in. The log cabin was of paramount consideration.  After the
spot was selected, logs cut and hauled, and the clap-boards made, the
erection was but the work of a day. They were of rude construction,
but not always uncomfortable.
     "About this time merchants and professional men made their 
appearance. The Reverend John Wright, of the Presbyterian Church,
settled in Lancaster in 1801; and the Reverend Asa Shinn and 
Reverend James Quinn, of the Methodist Church, traveled the Fairfield
circuit very early.
     "Shortly after the settlement, and while the stumps remained in
the streets, a small portion of the settlers indulged in drinking frolics,
ending frequently in fights. In the absence of law, the better disposed
part of the population determined to stop the growing evil. They 
accordingly met, and resolved, that any person of the town found intoxi-
cated, should, for every such offense, dig a stump out of the street or
suffer personal chastisement, (the chastisement consisted of so many
stripes on the bare back, well laid on.) The result was, that after several 
offenders had expiated their crimes, dram drinking ceased, and for
a time all became a sober, temperate and happy people.
     "In April, 1799, Samuel Coats, Senior, and Samuel Coats, Junior,
from England, built a cabin in the prairie, at the crossing of Hocking,
kept bachelor's hall, and raised a crop of corn.   In the latter part of
the year, a mail route was established along Zane's trace, from Wheeling 
to Limestone. The mail was carried through on horseback, and,
at first, only once a week. Samuel Coats, Sr., was the post-master,
and kept his office at the crossing. This was the first established mail
route through the interior of the Territory, and Samuel Coats was the
first post-master at the new settlement.
     "The settlers subsisted principally on corn bread, potatoes, milk
and butter, and wild meats. Flour, tea and coffee were scarcely to be
had, and when brought to the country, such prices were asked as to
put it out of the power of many to purchase. Salt was an indispensable 
article, and cost, at the Scioto Salt Works, five dollars for fifty
pounds; flour cost $16 per barrel; tea, $2.50 per pound; coffee, $1.50;
spice and pepper, $1.00 per pound.
     "The early settlers were a hardy and industrious people, and for
frankness and hospitality, have not been surpassed by any community.
The men labored on their farms, and the women in their cabins. Their
clothing was of a simple and comfortable kind.  The women clothed
their families with their own hands, spinning and weaving for all their
inmates the necessary linen and woolen clothing. At that day no cabins



 

HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

44        
were found without their spinning wheels, and it is the proud boast
of the women that they could use them. As an evidence of their 
industry and saving of time, it may be mentioned, that it was not an 
infrequent thing to see a good wife sitting, spinning in her cabin, upon an
earthen floor, turning her wheel with one foot, and rocking her baby
in a sugar trough with the other.
     "The people of that day, when opportunity afforded, (which was
not often,) attended public worship; and it was nothing new, or strange,
to see a man at church with his rifle---his object was to kill a buck,
either going or coming.
     "In 1799, Levi Moore, Abraham Bright, Major Bright, Ishmael
Due and Jesse Spurgeon, emigrated with their families from Allegheny
county, Maryland, and settled near where Lancaster now stands. Part
of the company came through by land from Pittsburg, with their horses,
and part of their horses and goods descended the Ohio River in boats
to the mouth of the Hocking; and thence ascended the latter in canoes
to the mouth of Rush Creek. The trace from Wheeling to Hocking,
at that time, was, almost in its entire length, a wilderness, and did not
admit of the passage of wagons. The land party of men, on reaching
the valley, went down to the mouth of Hocking and assisted the water
party up.  They were ten days in ascending the river, having upset
their canoes several times, and damaged their goods."