HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

CHAPTER XXI.

LANCASTER AS AN INCORPORATED VILLAGE AND CITY---FORMATION OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY.

     In 1831, upon petition, an act of incorporation was passed by the
Legislature, incorporating the village of Lancaster, and endowing it
with certain specified municipal powers and privileges. The municipal 
officers were one mayor, one marshal, one recorder, one treasurer
and a board of trustees.   The respective officers were elected by
the qualified electors, annually, on the first Monday of April. The
act of incorporation conferred power to levy a tax for revenue. The
fiscal resources were light---taxation, and license to shows and exhibi-
tions. The following exhibit is from an old copy of the Ohio Eagle,
of the date of June, 1827, and shows the finances of the village of Lan-
caster, for two years, viz.: from April 20, 1825, to April 23, 1827, thus:
     Amount of income from all sources, for two years, $888.14 1/4; total
disbursements for all purposes, for the same time, $932.88 1/2; showing a
balance against the treasurer of $44.77 1/4; signed, Benjamin Connell,
treasurer: attested by Gotleib Steinman, recorder.
     The total absence of all records for the twenty years between 1831
and 1851 renders it impossible to furnish much of the municipal history
of the village during that period. It is known that for the years 1848
and 1849, John Garaghty was mayor. Beyond that, nothing appears on
record.
     In the year 1851 Lancaster was made a city of the third class, by a
special enactment of the State Legislature. The act provided for one
mayor, whose term of office should be two years; one city clerk, one
city solicitor, one marshal, and two councilmen for each ward, the
latter to serve two years, and so arranged that one councilman in each
ward should be elected each year, and one term expire each year. The
act of incorporation at the same time divided the city into four wards, and
fixed their boundaries. And thus, when the Fifth ward was created
by the annexation of East Lancaster, the city council was made to 
consist of ten members, one-half of whom should be elected annually.
The succession of mayors, from 1851, under the city government, was
as follows:
     1851-53-William P. Creed.
     1853-55-John D. Martin.
     1855-57-Silas Hedges.
     1857-59-Alfred McVeigh.
     1859-63-Kinnis Fritter.
     1863-67-Samuel Ewing.
     1867-75-Tallman Slough.
     1875-77-Philip Bennadum.
     1877-79-John McCormic.
     1879-81-William Vorys.

141

    Samuel Rainey, elected in 1881, is the present incumbent. The city
elections are held on the first Monday of each April.
     The financial showing fifty years later than the foregoing exhibit,
by way of contrast, will measure the growth of the population and 
business of Lancaster for a half century. The gross receipts for the two
years of 1875 to 1877, from all sources, for city purposes, and not in-
cluding school funds, as shown by the treasurer's books, was $61,437.56; 
and the total expenditures for the same time, not including school
funds, was $53,220.08, leaving a balance to the credit of the city of
$8,217.78. There is likewise a showing, that during the two former
years, $5.00 were paid to Thomas Ewing by the village for legal advice, 
and that during the two latter years, about $1000.00 were paid for
counsel.
     The burdens the city bears is a legitimate part of its history. It
supports ten churches at an annual expense of about $15,000, exclusive
of Sunday school and missionary collections, and the building and 
repairing of church edifices. The amount levied on the city for corpora-
tion purposes, and to meet the interest on city bonds, school bonds and
other purposes, with not fall short of $30,000 annually. In addition to
the foregoing the city has built---within the last ten or fifteen years two
new school buildings, at a cost of about $80,000, including the cost of
building lots. The annual levy for school purposes alone, including
interest on school bonds, is about $26,000. These burdens are sustained 
by a population of something less than eight thousand souls.
     Lancaster has always, until within the last twenty-five or thirty
years, been a slow-growing, conservative community, though possess-
ing many superior local advantages. But its growth has been steady
and substantial. There are perhaps a greater proportion of its citizens
who live under their own roofs, than any other town of Ohio of equal or
approximate population. Within the last dozen or more years, its
manufacturing and other interests have been greatly extended.
     Lancaster has acquired abroad, a reputation almost classic, more
especially in its early history, which it owes not to its institutions of
learning, but to an unusually large number of distinguished citizens who
found their way to it.
     The death rate in Lancaster during forty years is probably in about
the same ratio of other communities, though the place sustains a repu-
tation for general healthfulness and exemption from epidemic disease.
The epidemic of 1823, elsewhere referred to, has never had an approx-
imate parallel in the place. But the natural death rate may be noticed. 
The citizens of Lancaster of forty years ago, who were past
the middle age, and who were the leading business men and women
of the place are all dead. Less than a dozen business men of Lancaster 
of 1840 are alive, and the few there are of them remaining have,
with few exceptions, retired from active duty. An entirely new popu-
lation has come in. The Lancaster of to-day is in no respect the 
Lancaster of forty years ago, neither socially, commercially nor in any 
single one of its features.
     In August 1850, Lancaster suffered a visitation of cholera. The
disease was prevailing in Columbus at the time, and it was supposed
to have been brought to Lancaster by a foot-man, who walked down

142

on a hot day with the disease upon him. He stopped a short time in
East Lancaster, and died on the following day. The disease immedi-
ately broke out, and during about two weeks some thirty deaths 
occurred. In three instances nearly the entire family was swept away.
Great alarm prevailed, and many left the place. The deaths were
chiefly in East Lancaster and the immediate vicinity. In Lancaster
proper there were only five deaths.
     There have been several visitations of small-pox, at various intervals 
of time, generally malignant and confluent, many of the cases
proving fatal. A rigid system of non-intercourse with the affected
houses, and the use of the yellow flag, usually confined the malady to
its first locality, thereby presenting its spread and saving the town from
its epidemic influences.
     ADDITIONS: That part of the city of Lancaster known as "Car-
penter's Addition" embraces all lying south of an alley running east
and west parallel with the south end of the first tier of lots on the south
side of Chestnut street, and extending east, west and south to Zane's
section lines, and was purchased from Mr. Zane by Emanuel Carpenter, 
jr., in 1814. Mr. Carpenter at once platted his addition to the
town of Lancaster, which plat and the list of sales were recorded Sep-
tember 13, 1814. The alley referred to, which runs between the original 
town and the Carpenter addition is now called Center alley---its
original name being Jackson's alley. Its eastern terminus at High
street is about opposite the line dividing the old grave-yard from the
Methodist church premises. The grounds upon which the M. E. and
A. M. E. churches stand and also a third lot adjoining the A. M. E.
church on the south were devoted by Mr. Carpenter for church and
burial purposes. The last named lot was subsequently condemned
by the city authorities and made a part of Walnut street. The continu-
ation of Columbus and Broad streets from Jackson alley through the
new addition was effected without changing their names. High street
---Fourth street of the old town---south of Jackson's alley he named
Jackson street. To the first street running east and west in the new
addition he gave the name of Walnut, which it still retains. Perry
street of Carpenter's addition extending diagonally from Broad street
at the railroad to High street south of the Methodist church, was
named by him and Winding street of this addition is still the same.
The Lawrence street, surveyed and named by Mr. Carpenter, is now
the railroad bed. Grogon is a short street, which runs from the railroad
south towards the canal, on the west side of Hood's row. The large
hill, the south end of which is cut by Walnut street, which is familiarly
known as "Green's Hill" is marked "Mount Prospect" on Carpenter's
plat. The open space at the south end of Broadway, through which
the railroads pass was called "Center Circle" by Mr. Carpenter, as
several streets converge there. He gave lots sixty-nine and twenty-
three, both triangular, for school purposes. Lot sixty-nine is at the
southwest corner of High and Perry streets; twenty-three is on the
southeast corner of Columbus and Walnut streets. Carpenter's plat
extended to the present canal. All beyond as far as the original boun-
dary of Zane's section, west, south and east, was subsequently sur-
veyed and sold as out-lots, and is principally so used, though portions

143

of this ground have been sold as town lots and improved. Up to the
present time more than twenty other additions have been added to the
original plat of the town of Lancaster. The Hop Company addition,
comprising the northeast part of the Fifth ward is among the largest.
Its principal street is Hop avenue, running north and south. This is
properly Talmade's addition, as Theodore Talmade laid the ground off
into town lots after having purchased it of the Hop Company, in which
he was a large stockholder. The ground originally contained about
eighty acres.
     Joseph C. Kinkead laid out an addition, situated chiefly between the
north end of Broadway and Chestnut streets. Thomas Ewing's addition 
was to the southeast corner of the city, and extended down to the
east graveyard. Hunter's addition borders on the west side of the east
graveyard, embracing Maple street. There is also an addition called
"Hunter's heirs' addition," all belonging to the original tract. Carter's 
addition lies along Main street, east of the hill. John C. Weaver.
being the owner of some land over the hill and in the present southeast
part of the city, laid it off into lots, which he sold. John G. Willock
made an addition to the north part of town. His lots were on North
Broadway near the fair grounds. The Wagonhals addition is on North
Columbus street, in the northwest part of the city.
     At an early day a man named Branstadt laid out and sold a number
of lots in what is now known as the "Hood neighborhood." John Latta
laid off and sold some lots lying north of Mill street, between Broadway
and Columbus streets. The section of buildings south of Columbus
street, between Pratt's tanyard and the old Logan road, is known as
Giesy addition. Daniel Sefford made two additions to Lancaster, one
east of the hill and on the north of the Zanesville pike, the other north
of Mill street, between Broadway,and Columbus street. Hugh Boyle's
addition was on Mulberry street, embracing the Keitz corner, and 
extended up Broadway to the first alley on the north side, and also 
extending on Columbus street. Henry Sutsen sold some lots on the west
side of the canal, embracing the old tanyard. East of Broadway and
south of Main street, additions were made to the original plat of Lan-
caster by Michael Garaghty, John Reber, and Jesse B. Hart. The
Cox heirs' addition is principally on King street, between Broadway
and High streets. Abraham Syfert made a small addition to East
Lancaster. Thomas Sturgeon has made additions to various parts of
the city, but chiefly to the northeast part, on both sides of Mulberry
street, east of High street. John H. Tennent sold one tier of lots on
the south side of Chestnut street and west from Maple. Tunis Cox
was the proprietor of a small addition of town lots in the vicinity of the
old starch factory, on the north bank of the canal. Rising's addition
comprises a number of lots in the north part of the city, lying between
Broadway and Columbus streets.
     The plat of a town of the same size as Lancaster was originally is
among the county records, though not half a dozen persons now living
have ever heard of it. The name of this paper creation was "The
Town of Fairfield." It was surveyed and platted by John Murphy in
1802, and was regularly entered in the recorder's office. The lots were
all numbered and the streets named. It is not certain that any lots

144

were ever sold. It is reasonably certain that the plat of the town of
Fairfield was in section 34 of the original township of Richland, and
about one mile west of West Rushville. Zane's section was located
and bounded before the Government surveys were made. It happened,
therefore, that when the Government sections were established Zane's
section was surrounded on all sides by irregular and inconvenient gores,
from which have arisen many difficulties in establishing metes and
bounds in the resurveys, as witness the contest between the city and
the Cox heirs, some years ago. As an instance of the awkwardness of
some of the section lines, it may be mentioned that Zane's section line
was some four hundred yards south of the north line of Hocking town-
ship, and on the east, the west boundary of Berne township extended
into Lancaster originally to Center alley, while Zane's section extended
east as far as Maple street---nearly three squares from the township
line. The same difficulties, therefore, necessarily existed with regard
to the section lines on the south and west.
     Fairfield county was established by Governor St. Clair, December
9, 1800. That part of the proclamation defining its boundaries reads
as follows:
     "Beginning at a point in the east line of the fifteenth range of town-
ships, and west of the fourteenth range, as surveyed in pursuance of
the ordinance of Congress of the 20th of May, 1795, where the said
line intersects the south boundary line of the military land, and running
from thence north until it intersects the Indian boundary line; thence
returning to the before-mentioned, and running south by the said range
line between the fourteenth and fifteenth ranges, until it intersects the
northern boundary line of the Ohio Company's Purchase; thence with
the said northern boundary line due west to the north-west corner of
the said Ohio Company's Purchase; thence south six miles; thence
with a line drawn due west until it intersects the western boundary of
the twentieth range of the townships, thence with the western boundary
of the said twentieth range to the before-mentioned Indian boundary
line, and with that line of limit to the before-mentioned intersection of
that boundary line."---Territorial Land Laws.

145

Next Chapter