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                               Chapter XVIII.
             THE WAR OF 1812 AND THE MEXICAN WAR
Though war with. England was not formally declared by Congress
until June 18, 1812, history shows that a company of infantry was
mustered in Fairfield county in the month of April of the same year,
to operate on the northern border against the British.  The company
was recruited by the late General George Sanderson, with headquarters
at Lancaster. When the company started for the frontier, it numbered
forty-two; and was officered as follows: Captain, George Sanderson;
First Lieutenant, David McCabe; ensign, Isaac Larimar; sergeants,
John Vanmeter, John Smith, James Larimar and Isaac Winter; cor-
porals, James White, Daniel Hudson, Robert Cunningham and William
Wallace.
     Privates, George Baker, William Brubeck, Daniel Baker, Robert
Cunningham, John Dungan, John Davis, William Edmunds, Reese
Fitzpatrick, John Hiles, Christopher Hiles, Thomas Hardy, Philip
Hines, Archibald Darnell, William Jinkins, Samuel Johnson, Isaac
Finkbone, John Kerley, Joseph Loveland, John Collins, Charles Mar-
tins, John McIntire, Jacob Monteith, James Monteith, Jacob Mellon,
Daniel Miller, William McDonald, William McClung, Henry Martin,
William Nelson, Joseph Oburn, Cornelius Post, William Kay, John
Swiler, Daniel Smith, Jacob Sharp, Thomas Short, Samuel Work,
Joseph Wheston, Henry Shoupe, John Huffman, Samuel Nolan, in all
fifty-three.
     This entire company, with all its officers, was included in the sur-
render of General Hull, when in front of Detroit, August 16, 1812,
and were paroled by order of the British General Brock, then in com-
mand of the post, not to take up arms against the British army until
regularly exchanged, which exchange did not take place until in May,
1812.
     This surrender of the American forces under the command of Gen-
eral Hull, including all the military stores and munitions of war within
his department, was in violation of the best judgment of his officers,
who solemnly affirmed there existed no necessity for it, and at the same
time so enraged the soldiers, that subsequently many ot them disre-
garded their parol, and re-enlisted.   The majority of the Fairfield
county men subsequently re-entered the service, and remained in it
until the close of the war, including Captain Sanderson.
     In April, 1813, Captain Sanderson recruited a second company,
partly from Fairfield county, and partly from Franklin county, Dele-
ware county and the Western Reserve, numbering, when they struck
tent to march to the front, one hundred and fifty-seven men. This
company served until the close of the war, and was honorably dis-
charged. The officers were---George Sanderson, Captain; First Lieu-
tenants, Aurora Butler, Andrew Bushnell, John A. Mifford, Abraham
Fish, Second Lieutenant, Ira Morse; Third Lieutenant, Wm. Hall; En-
sign, John Vanmeter; First serg't, Chaney Case; Second serg't., Robt.
Sanderson; Third serg't., John Neibling; Fourth serg't., John Dugan;
Corporals: John Collings, Peter Cory, Smith Headly, Daniel
T. Bartholomew. Musicians: John C. Sharp, Drummer; Adam
Deeds, Fifer, Privates; William Anderson, Joseph Anderson, John
Atkins, Joseph Alloways, Thomas Boyle, John Bartholomew, John
Berrimen, Henry Bixler, Abraham Bartholomew, Samuel Bartholomew
James Braden, Sheldon Reeber, James Brown, John Beaty, Eli Brady,
Charles Berdinoo, John Batiere, Daniel Baker, John Burley, Thomas
Billings, Daniel Benjamin, Henry Case, Archibald Casey, Joseph Clay,
Holden Collens, Blader Cremens, Cliester P. Cabe, Nathan Case,
Chancy Clarke, Almon Carlton, Stephen Cook, David Crosby, Jesse
Davis, Asa Draper, Walter Dunham, Geo. Daugherty, Enos Devore,
Benj. Daily, John Evans, Joseph Elinger, Peter Fulk, John Forsyth,
Daniel Filkall, John Faid, Ephraim Grimes, William L. Gates, Elna-
than Gregory, Joseph Gibson, Samuel Gause, John Hunt, James Hager-
ty, Josiah Hinkley, John Hall, Fred. Hartman, David Hughs, Perlin
Holcomb, John Harter, Jacob Headly, John Harbeson, John Icas, Am-
brose Joice, James Jones, John Johnson, James Jackson, John L. Jack-
son, John Kisler, James Kincade, George Kissinger, Jonatlian Kitts-
miller, Samuel Kinsman, Joseph Lariman, Fred. Leathers, Henry Lief,
Amos Leonard, Marinas Leonard, William Lauther, John McClung,
John McElwayne, Francis McCloud, Hosea Merrille, John McClarky,
Josh Merrill, James Moore, Joshua Mullen, Thomas Mapes, John Mc-
Bride, William M. Clare, Henry Mains, Andrew Miller, John McCon-
nell, Alex. McCord, William Harper, Isachar Nickerson, George 
Osborn, George Parks, Samuel Pratt, Powel Pain, Benjamin Berkhart,
Luther Palmer, Arzell Pierce, John Ray, David Ridenor, William Reed,
George Raphy, Elijah Rogers, Asa Rose, Joseph Straller, Henry Shad-
ley, Christian B. Smith, Perry Spry, John Sunderlaud, Christian Shy-
power, David Seress, John Seress, Henry Skolls, Ephraim Summers,
Henry C. Strait, Jonathan Sordan, Jacob Shoup, Charles Smith, Myn-
der Shears, Adam Senor, John Smith, T. Sharp, S. Shenor, G. Shad-
wick, S. Taylor, J. Trorenger, F. Tesler, B. Thorp, F. Tucker, I.
Thorp, J. Twadle, P. Vancleaf, I. Vanney, Thomas Thorp, J. Twadle,
B. Thorp, A. Walker, A. White, I. Weaver, T. Wheatley, D. Walters,
J. Wright, J. Welchaus, C. Wolffly, F. Williams, W. Wallace, A.
Wilson, W. Watson, J. Young, H. Zimmerman, D. Zeigler, D. Wood-
worth, S. Tyler, G. Tennis, L. Vanney, J. Wilson, I. Wheeler.
     The first company commanded by Captain Sanderson, and which
marched from Lancaster in April, 1812, formed a part of Colonel Lewis
Cass's Regiment of Ohio Volunteers. There was another company,
which was in part recruited in Fairfield but of which very little infor-
mation is to be obtained. The company was attached to Colonel Paul's
regiment of Twenty-Seventh United States Infantry.
     They were honorably discharged at Detroit, in 1814. Accident
placed in the hands of Dr. Scott an old blank book, which was pur-
chased with a lot of odds and ends at the executor's sale of the effects of
the late venerable John Leist, one mile west of Amanda, by a son of



 

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the late Williarn Graham, of Hocking township. It is a journal in
diary form of a third company of Infantry recruited in Fairfield county,
with headquarters at Lancaster. The company was commanded by
Capt. Jesse D. Courtright; John Leist, First Lieutenant; but no other
officers or other specifications of the constitution of the company are
written in the memorandum. The record seems to have been kept by
one, Samuel Taylor, probably an orderly sergeant. The Journal opens
thus. "Rendezvoused at Lancaster, on the 26th day of August, 1812,
for a six months tour on an expedition towards Canada."
     The record then proceeds in the form of a regular kept diary, giving 
particulars of the daily marches and encampments, until the Maumee 
country is reached, when it terminates abruptly with this brief
paragraph.
     "General Harrison arrived at the rapids, and started next day with
a thousand men, commanded by General Perkins, to reinforce General
Winchester. They did not get far, when they met some of Winches-
ter's men, who told them that Winchester's army was all taken prisoner,
or killed."
     There was also a rifle company organized in 1812, numbering from
eighty to one hundred strong, raised chiefly along Ewing's Run, and
north of Lancaster, marching first to Upper Sandusky, where they
were encamped for some time. What part they further enacted in 
hostile movements, does not appear.
     They enlisted for six months, and at the expiration of this time they
were honorably discharged.
     This company was commanded by Captain David Ewing, Thomas
Ewing, First Lieutenant and John Burton Second Lieutenant.
     To give a minute account of the part taken in the war with Mexico
by Fairfield county, in 1846 and in 1847, at this late day, in the ab-
sence of muster rolls, is almost impossible, nor would a specific detail
of the particularities serve any special purpose to future history. But it
may be said, that Fairfield furnished as many soldiers as any county in
Ohio in proportion to her population, and that she was as prompt in 
responding to the call. There were two companies from the county. The
first company left for the seat of war in 1846, and was commanded by
Captain Wm. Irvin, with Aaron Julien as First Lieutenant. The com-
pany went out full, and served one year, and was honorably discharged.
They were in several sharp engagements, but did not suffer greatly.
A few of their number died from disease. The second company started
out in the month of May, 1847, sixty strong, and filled up at Cincin-
nati. They were absent a l ittle more than one year, their return being
in July 1848; they suffered some from sickness. This company did
mostly guard duty. It was commanded by W. F. Furguson, First
Lieutenant, W. Rice; Second Lieutenants, Alva Perry and Perry
Steinman. The company was honorably discharged.
 



 

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                               Chapter XIX.
                        WAR OF THE REBELLION
     To Fairfield county belongs the distinguished honor of sending the
first company of soldiers to the state capital under President Lincoln's
first call for 75,000 men just after the full of Fort Sumter. As the 
intelligence of the surrender of this fort flashed over the country, at
Lancaster it enkindled the same intense patriotism, and aroused the
same righteous indignation that was displayed throughout the entire
north. The colors of the nation had been assailed and trodden under
foot, and under this national insult, party differences were for a time
forgotten, and the wildest excitement prevailed. The call for men was
made April 15th, and on Tuesday, 16th, Lancaster was in arms. The
Lancaster Guards, a military company, had just lost its captain by 
removal from the county, and J. A. Stafford, a young shoemaker of
Lancaster, had been elected in his place. Tuesday evening a large
and enthusiastic citizens' meeting was held, volunteers were enlisted
and one thousand dollars were contributed by the citizens for the bene-
fit of the families of those, who obeyed their country's call. Wednes-
day all was confusion and excitement. The company paraded the
streets with the stars and stripes and with music. The little military
band by enlistments, had swelled its numbers to over one hundred
privates, and about four o'clock in the afternoon formed into line on
Broadway and marched to the depot, escorted by an immense throng
of citizens, led by the Lancaster Brass Band. Farewells were spoken
to parents, wives and sweethearts, and at five o'clock the train departed
for Columbus, via Zanesville. It was the first to arrive but was
speedily followed by the Dayton Guards and other companies.
     The FIRST OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY was organized on the morn-
ing of April 18 at Columbus, with A. M. McCook as Colonel, and before
the dawn of the next day together with the Second Regiment, was on
its way to Washington. The Lancaster Guards had the proud distinc-
tion of being Company A. So speedily had come the clash at arms,
that equipments were unprovided for, but the regiment was ordered to
proceed to Washington without arms. It made a halt of a day or two
at Harrisburg; where the soldiers were hospitably entertained by the
ladies of the city. At Lancaster, Pennsylvania, they halted for arms
and equipments, and after several vexatious delays, reached Baltimore
a few days after the Massachusetts Regiment had been fired upon in
the streets.
     One of the boys in a letter home, after his arrival at Washington
says: "Well, here we are at the capitol. When we arrived at the depot
at Baltimore, some of our boys were timid about going through the
city, remembering the assault on the Massachusetts men; but as we
could not crawl under it, nor fly over it, and would not go around it,
we marched through the streets with our guns well charged and our
fingers on the triggers."
    The First and Second Regiments crossed the Potomac, and went
into camp, six miles west of Washington, at Camp Upton, Fairfax
county, Virginia. The earliest action of the First was at Vienna, where
General Schenck unexpectedly met the enemy, and lost six or seven
men. Company A was detailed for guard duty, at the Cross Roads,
near Falls Church, a few miles from Vienna. The three months' term
of service expired a few days before the battle of Bull Run, but the
regiment remained, and did efficient service in covering the retreat.
The only loss Company A sustained was one man taken prisoner. He
found his way back to Lancaster, about the close of the war. The
company was sent home, and discharged in August. It numbered one
hundred and fourteen men. J. A. Stafford was Captain; Thomas M.
Hunter, First Lieutenant, and Ezra Rickets, Second Lieutenant.
     Within a few days after its discharge. Company A re-enlisted. The
place of rendezvous was at Camp Corwin, near Dayton. The organ-
ization of the regiment was not completed until October. November
4th, it received arms at Cincinnati, and on the 16th, at Camp Nevin,
Kentucky, reported to General McCook, then in command of the 
Second Division of the Army of the Cumberland, and assigned to the
Fourth Brigade. December 17th, it marched to Green River, where it
was first engaged. It remained in camp here until February 14, 1862,
when orders were received to join the forces of General Grant, then
moving on Fort Henry. At Upton Station, news was received of the
fall of Fort Henry, and a retrograde movement was begun. It reached
Nashville, March 3d, and encamped, late at night, five miles out on the
Franklin Turnpike. The men had neither tents, blankets, nor shelter
of any kind, and the rain. snow, and sleet was falling fast. 
Encamping in an open field, the men suffered terribly.
     Its first severe struggle was at Pittsburgh Landing. At daybreak,
on the morning of April 7th, the regiment reached Pittsburgh, after a
forced march, and, at six o'clock, moved to the front, and formed in
line of battle. It was engaged in the hottest of the fight all day, and
lost sixty men, killed and wounded. Captain Hooker was among the
severely wounded.
     The regiment participated in the tedious movement on Corinth, hav-
ing occasional skirmishes. Under Major Langdon, it had a brisk fight
at Bridge Creek. The First did not participate in the pursuit of the
enemy, but remained in and about Corinth, doing picket and guard
duty till June 10, when it received marching orders for Nashville. After
several diversions, it reached Nashville, September 10, and continued
its march, in company with General Buell's army, in pursuit of Bragg's
Rebel army, then on its way to Louisville.  The National forces
reached Louisville first, through forced marches, but the extremely hot
weather, dusty roads, and absence of drinking water, occasioned great
loss.
     October 9, at Dog Walk, a brisk engagement was had with the 
enemy. A number of arduous marches, and sharp skirmishes followed,
and December 31, the First was engaged in heavy fighting at Stone
River. It was stationed in the front line of battle, and maintained that
position, after a little confusion, until the close of the action. January
6, 1863, the regiment went into camp, four miles from Murfreesboro.



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     On June 24, 1863, the movement on Tullahoma cornmenced. The
First was not actively engaged at Liberty Gap, being held in reserve,
but was under a heavy artillery fire. Rapid and tedious marches were
made, and at one o'clock in the night of July 1, the deserted Rebel
camps, with tents standing, and artillery, etc., lying about at 
Tullahoma, were reached. August 16, the march was resumed, and 
Bellefonte reached on the 22d:
     The First was engaged in the Chickamauga campaign. September
18, it was placed on picket, near the right of the National lines, and
during the day there was constant firing between the pickets. On the
morning of the 19th, the regiment was relieved from picket duty, and
marched to the support of General Thomas. It was placed in the front
line of battle, with the Second Division on the right of the Fourth
Brigade. A charge was made, and the enemy driven a mile and a
half, their artillery captured, and the ground occupied by General Baird
fully recovered. The enemy attempted to regain their position, but
were handsomely repulsed.
     About dusk, the rebels reappeared in great force, and, driving in
the center, the First Ohio was compelled to change its position, to con-
front the enemy. It fell back about one hundred and fifty yards, 
reformed its lines, and, in the gathering gloom and smoke, a terrible
carnage ensued, from which the enemy soon retired, and the National
division received orders to fall back.
     On the following morning, the First occupied the second line of in-
trenchments. About one o'clock it made a charge, with the Louisville
Legion, upon a heavy Rebel force marching around to the left, and put
it to flight. The loss of the regiment, during the two days, was one
hundred and twenty in killed and wounded.
     October 20, it formed part of the important expedition down the
Tennessee River, which resulted in the capture of the ridge command-
ing Brown's Ferry, and the roads, thus enabling supplies to reach Chat-
tanooga.
     November 23, the battle of Orchard Knob was fought, the opening
of the battle of Mission Ridge. About noon, the First Ohio and Twenty-
third Kentucky consolidated, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel
Langdon, and was formed in column doubled at the center, to the right
of Hazen's Brigade. It advanced on the enemy, and captured his rifle
pits, and one hundred and fifty prisoners. This position was held till
the afternoon of the 25th, when the First was placed in the front line,
on the right of the brigade and division, and advanced on the rebel
works, about a mile distant, on the double quick. The rebels were
fairly lifted out of their works, almost without firing a shot.
     After taking possession of these abandoned works, the troops were
exposed to a galling fire from the crest of the ridge. A charge was
made upon the works at the top of the ridge, under a withering fire,
in which Lieutenant-Colonel Langdon and Major Stafford, were
wounded. The crest was gained, but the First lost five officers and
seventy-eight men, killed and wounded.
     January 17, 1864, it had a hard fight at Strawberry Plains. On May
4, it started with Sherman. on the Atlantic campaign. During the
next two months, it was engaged at Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Adairs
ville, Burnt Hickory, Kenesaw, and Chattahoochie River. In all of
these engagements it sustained losses.  August 15, 1864, Company A
was mustered out, with twenty-seven men, only one-fourth the number
which enlisted.
     In all, it participated in twenty-eight battles and skirmishes. Cap-
tain Stafford was promoted to Major, and was mustered out with 
Company A. He had command of the regiment a great part of the time.
Lieutenant Hooker succeeded him in the captaincy of Company A.
     SEVENTEENTH O. V. I.---This regiment belonged more distinctively
to Fairfield county, and contained a greater number of her men than
any other in the field. After Company A, of the First, had reached
Columbus, on the 17th of April, Sergeants A. H. Geisy and Theodore
Michels, and Leo Noles, Abraham Ogden, and J. W. Stinchcomb were
detailed to return to Lancaster, and raise another company. By the
20th of April, one hundred and eighty-five men had been recruited, and
two companies were organized, for three months service.
     The second call of the President for troops, found these two com-
panies encamped at the Lancaster Fair Grounds, christened Camp An-
derson. They were at once made the nucleus of the Seventeenth Reg-
iment, which John M. Connel was ordered to recruit, and which was
rapidly formed here. Within a few days, eight companies, from sur-
rounding counties, reported, and on the 20th the regiment started for
West Virginia. J. M. Connel was its Colonel. The two Fairfield
county companies were officered as follows: Company A, A. H. Geisy,
Captain; Abraham Ogden, First Lieutenant; Leo Noles, Second Lieu-
tenant. Company I, J. W. Stinchcomb, Captain; John Wiseman, First
Lieutenant, and J. C. Watson. Second Lieutenant.
     Its first duty was to guard trains to Clarksburg,Virginia. Company
A was there one of two companies detailed as guard to General Mc-
Clellan. Company I was sent down the river, with several others, to
operate against the guerillas. It was stationed at Ravenswood, with
another company, and performed good service in breaking up rebel 
recruiting camps. Governor Wise, of Virginia, made preparations to
capture the two companies, but they were reinforced, and he wisely
forebore. The regiment consolidated at Buckhannon, and was ordered
to occupy and fortify Sutton, Virginia, which was done. August 3,
the regiment started for home, reached Zanesville on the 13th, and
were mustered out on the 15th.
     Efforts were at once made to reorganize the regiment for three years,
and August 30, it assembled at Camp Dennison. In the new regiment,
Colonel Connel commanded, and one-half the companies belonged to
Fairfield county, as follows; Company A, Benj. F. Butterfield, Captain
Benjamin Showers, First Lieutenant; Henry Arney, Second Lieutenant.
     Butterfield was promoted to Major, December, 1862. Lieutenant
Showers, in May, 1864, was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. Lieu-
tenant Arney was promoted to the Captaincy, in December, 1863.
     Company B, James W. Stinchcomb, Captain; Aaron P. Ashbrook,
First Lieutenant, and Owen W. Brown, Second Lieutenant. 
Stinchcomb became Major in December, 1863.
     Company F.---Ezra Rickets, Captain; Irvin Linn, First Lieutenant,
and Daniel Sullivan, Second lieutenant.



 

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     Company I.---Abraham Ogden, Captain; Leo Noles, First Lieuten-
ant, and Theodore Michaels, Second Lieutenant.
     Company K.---Daniel M. Rea, Captain; Wm. Cook, First Lieu-
tenant; and Seth Collins, Second Lieutenant. Rea resigned in 
August, 1862, and was succeeded by Captains Kumler, Clark, and
others.
     September 30, the regiment was ordered to Kentucky, reporting
at Camp Dick Robinson, October 2. Thence it moved to Wild Cat,
participating in the fight there, and losing several men. It also 
participated in the battle of Mill Springs.
     When in the vicinity of Mill Springs, Colonel Connel, in command
of the Seventeenth, was ordered to defend a ford on the Cumberland 
River. When some two or three miles from the rebel position, 
he took with him Captain Rickets, Lieutenant Sifer, and ten
men, and advanced to reconnoiter.   He stationed his men as
pickets along the road, and advanced, alone, to an eminence in
front of the enemy's camp, where, at a bend in the road, he suddenly
encountered a band of mounted rebels, about thirty yards distant.
They dashed towards him, unslung their carbines, and shouted the
challenge.   The Colonel put spurs to his horse, and the fire of his
pursuers passed harmlessly over his head. Unfortunately, his charger
stumbled and fell, throwing the rider, then galloped off.
     Captain Rickets, attracted by the fire and challenge, dashed up
to his fallen and injured Colonel, dismounted, and assisted him to his
own saddle; then, instantly turning, he discharged his revolvers at
the advancing rebels, and plunged on foot into the thick woods that
lined the roadside. Both reached the camp in safety.
     From this place the regiment proceeded to Nashville, arriving
March 3, 1862. Thence it guarded a wagon train to Shiloh, but did
not arrive in time to take part in the battle. It participated in the siege
of Corinth, and was engaged in several severe skirmishes, in one of
which Company B, with seventy men, penetrated the rebel lines,
drove the rebel pickets on their reserves, and held the position two
hours, losing six men wounded.
     At the battle of Perryville, the Seventeenth did not participate,
though it was under fire, in the rear of General Mitchel's command.
     At Stony River, the brigade to which the regiment was attached,
was stationed on the extreme right, until December 29, when, after
night, it marched from Nolinsville, to the Murfreesboro' Pike, and
next day had a severe skirmish with Wheeler's Cavalry, at Lavergne,
and recaptured the wagon trains he had taken. About one o'clock 
December 31, the regiment went into battle line, and with the brigade
charged the Rebel General Hanson's Brigade, drove them in confusion,
killing their general and about one hundred and fifty of the rank and
file. The loss of the Seventeenth was twenty wounded.
     After the long rest at Murfreesboro', General Rosecrans inaugurated
the Tullahoma campaign. The Seventeenth moved with its brigade,
and at Hoover's Gap, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Durbin
Ward, charged the Seventeenth Tennessee Rebel Regiment, strongly
posted in a belt of woods. In making the charge, it was compelled to
cross an open field, and receive a full fire directly in its left flank, from

a rebel brigade and battery, yet it drove back the Seventeenth
Tennessee, and occupied its position.

     At the battle of Chickamauga, the regiment was on the extreme
right of the center, attached to the corps, commanded by General
Thomas. When General Wood's division was double-quicked out of
the line, the gap left exposed the right flank of the regiment, of which
the rebels took immediate advantage, and opened fire, both on the right
and front flank, causing it to lose heavily, and scattering its men in con-
fusion. Halting about three hundred yards from where they had been
driven, about two hundred of the Seventeenth were collected, and
charged back on the enemy, but to little purpose, as they outnumbered
them ten to one. Falling back again, they held a given point and
faught throughout the day, leaving the field with but fifty-two men.
The loss of the Seventeenth in killed and wounded, not including those
with slight flesh wounds, was over two hundred.  It was the severest
fight, in which the regiment participated. The gallant Captain Rickets, 
fell dead in the early part of the fight, and Lieutenant-Colonel
Ward, fell about the middle of the afternoon, on the front line, badly
wounded.
     During the siege of Chattanooga, the Seventeenth was in several
severe skirmishes, and at Brown's Ferry, it won honor, along with the
brigade to which it was attached. At Mission Ridge, though in the
rear when the battle commenced, it was at the front when the top of the
hill was gained. In this brilliant charge, the brave and gallant Major
Butterfield fell mortally wounded, while leading the regiment.
     January 1, 1864, the subject of re-enlisting as veterans having been
agitated, three hundred and ninety-three members of the Seventeenth
agreed to enlist for a second three years term, if it became necessary.
January 22 the regiment started home on furlough, and on the 7th of
March, returned to the field with over four hundred recruits. It went
with Sherman to Georgia, and at Resaco, May 13, bore its full share of
the conflict. An assault having been ordered, it moved forward with
Turchin's Brigade, until, unsurported on either side, it could go no 
further. Still it held the position it had gained, until the commanding
General decided to abandon the attack on the enemy's works at that
point. Its loss here, was quite heavy.
     At New Hope Church, Pumpkin Vine Creek, Kenesaw Mountain,
Peach Tree Creek, and several other places, the regiment was actively
engaged. Moving with Jeff. C. Davis' corps, to the rear of Atlanta,
the Seventeenth was among the claimants for the honor of having been
the first to strike the railroad. The next day Hunter's Brigade, formerly
Turchin's, in which the Seventeenth had been placed through the
campaign, sustained Este's and advanced under a galling fire of mus-
ketry and artillery, to the assault on Jonesboro. This ended the 
campaign.
     The Seventeenth was always at the front, never doing a single day's
service in mere garrison duty. It was never driven, except at Chicka-
mauga. Even then it quit the field only under orders, and that at 
nightfall.
     The Seventeenth Regiment Band, was composed of eighteen mem-
bers, all of whom were from about Lancaster. It served with the regi-



 

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122
ment for about a year, in the Army of the Tennessee, and was discharged
September 9, 1862. There were three deaths in the band, during the
term of service. Its leader was George Blaire, who was subsequently
commissioned Lieutenant, captured and imprisoned in Libby for nearly
a year.
     SIXTY-FIRST O. V. I.---This regiment, though organized at Camp
Chase, is more intimately connected with Lancaster. During the win-
ter of 1861-2, General Newton Schleich, maintained a recruiting office
in Lancaster, using the starch factory building for a barracks. Several
companies were recruited, but transferred to complete other regiments
as fast as recruited. In April, 1862, under a stringent call for imme-
diate troops, three regiments, partially formed, the Sixty-first, Fiftieth
and Fifty-second, were consolidated at Camp Chase, under name of
the Sixty-first. The other two regiments were afterwards organized.
     Colonel Newton Schleich commanded the regiment, and Captain
Daniel J. Schleich, Company B, the only Fairfield company. George
J. Wygum and Edward Hay, were the Lieutenants of the company.
     The regiment was mustered in for three years, and left Camp Chase
for Western Virginia, May 27, 1862, where it was connected with Gen.
Fremont's (afterwards Pope's) army. It first saw the enemy at Cedar
Mountain, where it arrived too late to participate actively, but in time
to receive a severe shelling from the enemy's guns, and sustained some
little loss. A number of brushes with the rebels occurred, and in the
second Bull Run battle, the regiment assisted in covering the retreat of
the National forces, and lost twenty-five men, killed and wounded.
September 2, it was engaged with the enemy at Chantilly, then fell
back towards Washington, and formed part of General Sigel's reserve
force. It went into winter quarters at Stafford C. H.
     On May 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th, it stood under fire at Chancellors-
ville, and sustained loss. It joined in the pursuit of Lee's army, and
July 1 opened the battle at Gettysburg as skirmishers. It was so fur-
iously received, that it was obliged to fall back to Cemetery Hill with
great loss. It held its position here, till the close of the fight, and then
joined in pursuit of the flying enemy. Captain J. M.Reynolds of
Cincinnati, in command of company B here, was killed by a shell.
     During the night of October 28, a fierce fight took place between
the Sixty-first and the rebels at Wauchatchie Valley, in which the 
latter were routed. November 22, it crossed the Tennessee River, and
joined the main army. On the three succeeding days, it was engaged
at Mission Ridge. Several marches were made and the regiment went
into winter quarters at Bridgeport, Tennessee.
     In March, 1864, it re-enlisted, and returned to Ohio, on thirty days
veteran furlough. Re-assembling at Camp Dennison, it started for the
front and joined the main forces at Rocky Face Ridge, May 7. From
this time it was almost constantly engaged with the enemy in the 
Atlantic campaign. May 14, in the vicinity of Resaca, it rescued the
Fifth Indiana Battery, which had been deserted by its support, and
drove the enemy before it. The next day the battle of Resaca was
fought and won, and the continued pursuit of the enemy commenced.
May 19, the army again caught up with the enemy, and again routed
them. On the 25th, near Dallas, Georgia, it was again found. The
Sixty-first was here deployed as skirmishers, and in performing this
duty lost six men killed and seventeen wounded. Skirmishes, many
of them severe, were constantly had, till June 22, when the army reached
Kenesaw Mountain, and commenced building works at Culp's Farm.
While thus engaged, the enemy made a dash upon the National lines,
and for a few moments had things their own way, but the troops rallied
and drove them back. In this affair, Major Becket was killed, and a
number wounded. While the fight was in progress, Colonel McGroarty
was ordered to advance his regiment to a certain.point, but in executing
the order, he placed it far beyond the line intended, and in the darkness
became almost isolated from his brigade. An attempt was made by a
rebel regiment, to capture them, but in moving through the dense
woods in the dark, the rebels were detached from their officers, and,
becoming alarmed, attempted to hide themselves in the thickets. The
Sixty-first, in falling back to its proper lines, stumbled across these fel-
lows, and captured a large number of them. Colonel McGroarty alone
brought in seventeen of the scared rebels.
     Peach Tree Creek was the next severe engagement, in which the
regiment participated. In it five officers were wounded, one fatally.
Over seventy men were wounded, and about twenty killed. The corps
to which the Sixty-first was attached was the first to march into Atlanta.
It remained here until November 15th, and then started with Sherman,
on his march to the sea. At Bentonville the last real battle of the
campaign was fought, and our regiment performed its part of it. At
Goldsboro, North Carolina, they went into camp, and here the Sixty-
first was consolidated with the Eighty-second Ohio, under the name of
the latter.
     The name of the Sixty-first was thus extinguished from the rolls of
the army. It was always a reliable regiment, and always found at its
post, as the numerous losses it suffered will attest. At its last roll call
but fifty-five men answered to their names. The consolidated regiment
marched to Washington, participated in the grand review there, and
returned home. It was mustered out of service at Columbus, in 
September, 1865.
     The Regimental Band was organized at Lancaster, with E.W.Wolfe
as leader. It remained a year with the regiment, and in May, 1862,
was mustered into General Hugh Ewing's Brigade, as Brigade Band.
During the operations about Vicksburg the band became disabled, by
death and sickness, and was again discharged by special order from the
War Department, in May, 1863. After this, the band was reorganized
as Post Band, at Camp Chase, where it remained till the close of the
war, and was finally mustered out February 4, 1865.
     THE FORTY-THIRD O. V. I contained one Company, I, enlisted
in Fairfield county, during the winter of 1861-2. Peter Brown was the
original Captain, but he soon resigned, and Lieutenant Peter Hewiston
was promoted to the vacancy, where he remained until he was mustered
out, in October, 1864.
     Henry S. Beck was made Captain of this company, on its re-enlist-
ment. O. W. Rigby and S. J. Morrell were the Lieutenants. The
gallant and lamented J. L. Kirby Smith was the original commander of
the regiment. It was organized at Mt. Vernon, February 7th, 1862,



 

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and was assigned to the Army of the Mississippi; and in all the opera-
tions that distinguished that army, in its first campaign, it bore a 
conspicuous part. At New Madrid, Missouri, Island Ten, Tiptonville,
Tennessee, Fort Pillow, and Iuka, it rendered most efficient service.
At Corinth, October 4th, the Forty-third and Sixty-third Ohio deserve
particular honor. They were posted on either side of Battery Robinet,
and, without any support, bore the brunt of the rebel hand-to-hand
charge, and succeeded in hurling back the opposing columns, when
our lines were breaking in all other parts of the field. Colonel Smith
fell at the first onset, mortally wounded, and over one-fourth of the
Forty-third was killed or disabled.
     It was with Grant at Oxford, Mississippi, and in the campaign
against Forrest, in West Tennessee, and General Dodge's raid, in North
Alabama, in April, 1863.
     In December, 1863, it re-enlisted almost unanimously, and at the 
expiration of its veteran furlough returned and captured Decatur, Ala-
bama. May 3rd, 1864, it took the advance of the Army of the Tennes-
see in the Atlanta campaign. It participated at Resaca, on the 13th,
and the two following days was engaged in heavy skirmishing. At
Dallas it took an important part.  In all the general movements of
its corps---the Sixteenth---during the campaign, the Forty-third partici-
pated. July 22nd, it started with a train of some fifteen hundred wagons,
with the Ninth Illinois Mounted Infantry, from Marietta to Decatur,
and by its prompt and fearless action, prevented the train from falling
into the hands of the enemy.
     When Hood attempted to cut off General Sherman's communica-
tions, the Forty-third assisted in the chase, and on its return to Atlanta,
joined in the "March to the sea." It participated in the grand review
at Washington, and, returning to Ohio, was mustered out July 13th,
1865.
     THE FORTY-SIXTH OHIO rendezvoused at Worthington, Franklin
county, and was organized October 16th, 1861. Two companies were
recruited in Fairfield county---C and F. Company C was officered by
John Wiseman, Captain; Frank Linnville and John Lutz, Lieutenants.
Company F by Henry Geisy, Captain; John J. Carron and C. H. Rice,
Lieutenants. Captain Geisy was promoted to Major, and was killed at
Dallas, May 28, 1864. Colonels Thomas Worthington, C. C. Walcutt,
and E. N. Upton successively commanded the regiment.
     It left Camp Chase for the field, in February, 1862, and reported a
few days later at Paducah, Kentucky. Its first important battle was at
Shiloh, in April. It was engaged during the entire fight, and received
a total loss, in killed and wounded, of two hundred and eighty seven
men. April 27, it moved with the army upon Corinth. The summer and
part of the autumn of 1862 was spent in garrison and provost duty.
Early in June, 1863, it was transported to Vicksburg, and participated
in the seige there.   At the battle of Mission Ridge the regiment
was engaged severely, and sustained a heavy loss.   It then
moved on the Knoxville campaign, and marched to Scottsboro, 
Alabama, for winter quarters. Here the regiment was armed with 
Spencer's repeating rifled muskets, and here, too, it re-enlisted as 
veterans, and was furloughed.
At Resaca it was actively engaged, May 13, 14th, and 15th,
but met with small loss. It arrived at Dallas on the 26th, and took
a position on the extreme right of the army, where it twice aided in
repelling a rebel assault.  The Spencer rifles produced sad havoc in
the ranks of the opposing columns, and caused the Forty-sixth to be
thenceforth dreaded. At New Hope Church it gained a position with-
in eighty yards of the enemy; and Colonel Walcutt, commanding the
brigade, by strategy caused the rebels to abandon their lines in confu-
sion.  At Kenesaw, Walcutt's Brigade led several brilliant charges, but
suffered considerable loss.
     July 20th found the regiment in line before Atlanta, and here it per-
formed noble service. At Ezra Church it was again engaged, and find-
ing the rebel regiment, Thirtieth Louisiana, that had confronted it at
Pittsburg Landing, assailed it with such vigor that the rebel Colonel,
ten of his officers and half of his men were killed, and their colors
taken.
     During August the regiment was frequently engaged in skirmishing,
and on the 29th, took part in the battle at Jonesboro. At Lovejoy's
Station, the Forty-sixth and the Sixty-sixth Illinois was deployed in
front of the army, and a challenge passed between the two regiments,
as to which would first occupy the enemy's lines, about a mile distant.
As they neared the lines, the conflict became hand-to-hand. The ene-
my were forced to retire, and the Forty-sixth gained its part of the line
first, capturing about fifty prisoners. Next the regiment participated in
the campaign against Hood, in northern Georgia.
     November 25th, it left Atlanta with its brigade for Savannah.
When near Griswoldsville, the brigade was attacked by a greatly 
superior force. The men waited until they had advanced to within one
hundred and twenty-five yards, then opened fire upon them with fear-
ful effect.   Five times the enemy was broken and driven back, the
last time not to return.
     Early in 1865, it charged the enemy at Bentonville, and captured
the works. For its service here, it was especially complimented for
gallantry.   The regiment marched northward, via Petersburg and
Richmond to Washington.   It was mustered out at Louisville, Ken-
tucky, July 22nd, 1865. During its term of service, the Forty-sixth
lost twenty men captured, and seven hundred and five men killed,
wounded, and died of disease.
     THE FIFTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT contained Company I, recruited in
Pickaway and Fairfield counties, by Captain Samuel M. Morrison.
William Roby and Stephen Defenbaugh were Lieutenants. February
10th, 1862, the regiment left Camp Chase, and arrived at Fort Donald-
son, Tennessee, on the morning of the 13th.   Stopping only long
enough to prepare their coffee, the regiment, then within four miles of
the fort, pushed on with energy, over rough and circuitous roads, but
did not form in line in time for action that day. On the 14th, however,
it engaged in the assault, and on the 15th marched into the fort at its
surrender.
     After Pittsburg Landing and the march on Corinth had been expe-
rienced, the regiment participated in various expeditions. Battles and
skirmishes were participated in at Milliken's Bend, Haine's Bluff,



 

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Greenville, Bolivar Landing, and Johnson's Landing, at which latter
place the regiment lost forty-seven per cent. of the whole number 
engaged. It remained in the vicinity of Yazoo River till January, 1863,
when it assisted in the capture of Arkansas Post, April 29th the battle
of Grand Gulf was fought, where it lost heavily. Its last service was
at Vicksburg, January 14th, 1865, after which it was mustered out at
Columbus.
     EIGHTY-EIGHTH O. V. I.---This regiment contained one full company 
(A), from Fairfield county. Its history is somewhat confused
with that of the Eighty-fifth. James C. Henley was authorized to
recruit a company for the Eighty-eighth, and he raised the company
and received his commission as Captain June 10, 1862. June 14, 1862,
the company was, for some reason, transferred to the Eighty-fifth, the
organization of which was never completed. It consisted of a battalion
only (four companies), and rendered service in guarding rebel prison-
ers at Camp Chase. At the expiration of three months this partially
formed regiment was discharged. Captain Henley's Company in this
regiment was K. His Lieutenants were George Orman and Henry C.
Sites. During Morgan's raid this company was ordered to Kentucky,
under command of Lieutenant Orman.
     In September. 1862, Captain Henley recruited another company
from near Pleasantville and Royalton principally, Its term of service
was three years.  It became Company K of the Eighty-eighth.
Though enlisted for regular service its duties were largely confined to
Camp Chase. Henry E. Howe and Harlow Park were First and Sec-
ond Lieutenants. Colonel George W. Neff commanded the regiment.
     After a few months the guard duty at Camp Chase became exceed-
ingly irksome, and the men clamored to be placed in the field. Their
hopes for a change, however, were delusive. Though detachments
were occasionally sent abroad for short periods of time, the greater
part of the three years' service was spent in and about Columbus.
     Company A was ordered to Williamsport, Maryland, and from there
to guard the ford at Blennerhasset's Island against Morgan's escape
from Ohio. It also marched twice to Grafton, Virginia. Companies
A and B were the two companies sent to Holmes county, under Colonel
Wallace, of the Fifteenth, to quelch the insurrection of those who
attempted to resist the draft. The insurrectionists had built a fort and
entrenched themselves behind it, but, after a few shots were fired, 
concluded that they preferred war abroad to war at home, and fled 
ignominiously. The company also served a short time in Cincinnati on
guard duty. The regiment was well drilled, and had it been given a
chance would undoubtedly have performed good service in the field.
It was mustered out July 3, 1865.
     THE NINETIETH O. V. I. contained two companies from Fairfield
County. Of these Company D was officered by Alvah Perry, Captain;
John M. Sutphen, First Lieutenant, and George W. Welsh, Second
Lieutenant: Company I. by Lewis R. Carpenter, Captain; Augustus
R. Keller, First Lieutenant, and Samuel L. Weidner, Second Lieuten-
ant. Captain Perry was promoted to the rank of Major in April, 1863,
and Lieutenant Sutphen succeeded him as Captain of Company D, and
was mustered out with the regiment. Captain Carpenter resigned in
December, 1862, and Lieutenant Keller was promoted to Captain.
Lieutenant Weidner also attained this rank. The Colonels of the 
regiment were Isaac N. Ross, Charles H. Rippey, and Samuel N. 
Yeoman, successively.
     The two Fairfield companies were organized at Lancaster and ren-
dezvoused at Circleville. They were mustered into service August 28,
1862, for three years. Their first duty was outpost picketing at 
Lexington. Kentucky. A forced march of over one hundred miles was
made from this place to Louisville in eighty-six hours. The new
recruits were compiled to quench their thirst with stagnant pool water
and march through stifling dust. Their suffering was intense, and
many sunk under it. October 15, the enemy was met and conquered
at Wildcat Mountain, and on the 20th the regiment surprised twelve
hundred of the enemy, and captured two hundred of them.
     The morning of December 31 found the regiment in line at Stone
River, where they fought with the intrepidity of veterans, losing one
hundred and thirty men, killed, wounded, and missing. Captain Perry
was captured here and sent to Libby Prison. He was afterward
exchanged and rejoined his regiment. January 1, the Ninetieth was in
line all day, and on the morning of the 2d it occupied the hill on which
was massed the forty pieces of artillery which sent Breckinridge's Rebel
Corps howling back over Stone River. At five P. M. the Ninetieth
Ohio and Thirty-first Indiana were ordered to move over an open
field. They obeyed and charged a rebel position, still held on the
national side of the river, and, with but little loss, became masters of it.
     On September 12, after the Tullahoma campaign, the regiment
found itself on West Chickamauga Creek, On the 18th it was ordered
to move with its brigade to the support of General Thomas's Corps.
The line of battle passed at quick time over a corn-field and through a
strip of timber, and, on debouching from the timber, discovered the
enemy at close range in the act of completing their movement of turn-
ing and enclosing General Thomas's right flank. A charge was made
which succeeded in driving back the enemy until the brigade formed
on the prolongation of General Thomas's right flank. This line was
established at one o'clock P. M., and, notwithstanding the repeated
efforts of the enemy, was held until half-past two P. M., when the
supply of ammunition became exhausted, and Colonel Rippey received
orders to retire his regiment to a strip of timber one hundred and fifty
yards in the rear. Here a section of a battery was obtained and the
enemy held in check till a fresh supply of ammunition was obtained.
The rebels again attempted to flank their position, and to meet this
new movement the regiment made a right-half wheel, about faced, and
was in position to meet the impending charge. To save a rout of the
right it was plain that a counter charge must be made. The Ninetieth
led the charge in gallant style, and caused the enemy to retreat in con-
fusion. It was next ordered to the support of General Jackson's Divi-
sion, then hard pressed. September 20 the brigade constructed works
and repelled his assaults. The Ninetieth then relieved the Second
Kentucky under a heavy fire. The line was afterwards broken on the
left of the brigade and the regiment exposed to a rear and flank fire.
The enemy was driven back, but again turned the right flank, which



 

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compelled the abandonment of the works. The retreat was made
under fire on the Dry Valley road. The loss of the regiment in this
engagement was three officers killed, and eighty-three men killed,
wounded, and missing.
     May 3, 1864, the regiment joined in the great Atlanta campaign,
and for one hundred and twenty days marched, fought, and suffered,
till the objective city was entered. October 3 it left Atlanta, and, with
the Fourth Corps, repassed the scenes of its advance, and participated
in the desperate battle of Franklin, and others. It was also at Nash-
ville, and after the victory joined in the pursuit of the rebels. Returning, 
March 1, 1865, it remained at Nashville until the surrender of the
rebel armies, and was then sent to Ohio and mustered out of service.
     COMPANY K, OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND FORTIETH O. V. I. was
recruited from Fairfield and Pickaway counties. It was intended for the
Ninetieth, but that regiment was full before the company was com-
pleted. George W. Hurst of Williamsport, was its first captain and
Isaac Butterfield and Joseph Bury its Lieutenants. Hurst soon resigned,
and the two Lieutenants were successfully promoted to the Captaincy.
The regiment was mustered in, September 11, 1862, and was 
ordered to Memphis. Thence it moved down the Mississippi River to
Johnson's Landing on the Yazoo River to join General Sherman. 
December 26th, it participated in the assault at Chickasaw Bayou, and
after the retreat assisted in taking Arkansas Post. It next moved down
the river to Young's Point, Louisiana, where it lost over one hundred
men from sickness and death.
     The regiment was in the whole of the Vicksburg campaign and par-
icipated in the battles of Thompson's Hill, Champion Hills, Big Black
Bridge and the siege of Vicksburg. It sustained considerable loss
here. It was on duty in Louisiana until November 28th, when it was
embarked for Texas, landing at Decrow's Point, on Matagorda Penin-
sula, December 3. It remained on this barren sand coast until January
14, 1864 and then moved to Matagorda Island. April 18th it was 
ordered to Alexandria, Louisiana, and arrived on the 26th. Here it was
engaged for six days and retreated with General Banks' army. At
Marksville and at Yellow Bayou the enemy was met and defeated.
This campaign was very severe. Forced marches of twenty-five
miles per day and ten days duration were endured. The army was
continually harassed by the enemy, both on flank and rear, and suf-
fered greatly from the stifling heat and dust. The weary march ended with
the approach of the Mississippi. November 21, it was ordered to the
mouth of White River, Arkansas, and was here consolidated with the
One Hundred and Twentieth Ohio.
     December 6th, the regiment was ordered to Morganza, Louisiana.
January 8th, 1865, it moved to Kenna and, on the 24th, was ordered to
Barrancas, Florida. It remained at this point until May and was sent
to Texas. On the way it helped take Mobile, remaining there eight
days. From Texas the regiment came home and was discharged in
July.
     During its term of service it was engaged in eight hard fought bat-
tles and many skirmishes. Its loss in killed and wounded was eighty-
six. During the first year about two hundred men died from disease
and many were discharged for disability; but the latter part of the ser-
vice was singularly free from casualties. It performed duty in ten dif-
ferent States and marched by land and water over ten thousand miles.
     THE ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIXTH was organized at Camp
Steubenville. Eight companies were ready for marching, when three
arrived from Fairfield and Perry counties, which had been raised for
for the Ninetieth. The organization of the regiment was complete how-
ever before they could join it and they were transferred to the One
Hundred and Twenty-sixth. The three companies were consolidated
into two, Company I being principally Fairfield county men and K,
Perry county men. Company I was recruited principally from Rich-
land, Walnut, Rush Creek and Pleasant townships. Captain, Henry
C. Yontz of New Salem commanded and Jacob Lamb and Joseph C,
Watson were Lieutenants. The Lieutenant-Colonel of this regiment,
the brave Aaron W. Ebright of Fairfield county, was killed at Winches-
ter, Virginia, September 19th, 1864. Col. Benj. F. Smith commanded
the regiment throughout its whole career.
     The first winter was spent among the mountains of Virginia. The
regiment suffered greatly from typhoid fever and small-pox. June 13th
at Martinsburg the brigade, to which this regiment was attached, was
attacked by Lee's advance army and about seventy men of the One
Hundred and Twenty-sixth, mostly from Company I, were captured.
The 14th was consumed in hard fighting and in the evening the Union
forces retreated to Harper's Ferry. At Manassas Gap it had a brisk
fight with the enemy. In August 1863, it went to New York to aid
in enforcing the draft there. In the spring of 1864 it participated
in Grant's march on Richmond. May 12th it suffered severely from
an engagement with the enemy at the Rapidan. It participated in all
the engagements of the campaign up to June 7th. At Cold Harbor,
Monacacy and Winchester it lost heavily. It arrived at Cedar Creek just
in time to take part in that memorable battle.
     During the first months of 1865 part of the regiment were on picket
duty and in the trenches within sight of the enemy constantly. On the
morning of April 2d, it performed an important part in the charge on
the enemy's intrenched lines. During the next few days it participated
in the pursuit of Lee's army, and on the night of the 5th was detached
for guard duty. It was mustered out near Washington, June 25, 1865.
During its term of service the regiment lost nine officers and one hun-
dred and eleven men killed; ten officers, and three hundred and seven-
ty-nine men wounded, an aggregate of five hundred and nine, or more
than one half the regiment.
     THE ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-EIGHTH was commanded by
Col. J. A. Stafford. It was recruited for one year's service in the fall
of 1864. Company C was composed of Ross and Fairfield county
men. The Fairfield quoto was recruited by Lieutenants P. H. 
McGrew and J. A. Sears. Charles Cavinor of Ross county commanded
it.
     The regiment was dispatched to General Thomas' command in
Tennessee, and during the siege at Murfreesboro was severely engaged.
In this engagement Company C lost its two color bearers, Irvin Linn
and George Crumley. Both were shot dead. In the affair at Wilker-

 

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son's Pike. in which two fine twelve-pounder Napoleons and two hun-
dred prisoners were captured, the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth par-
ticipated. After the defeat of General Hood's rebel army, at Nashville,
the regiment was engaged in a smart skirmish with the enemy at
Wise's Fork. After the advance to Raleigh it performed garrison
duty at Charlotte, North Carolina, till mustered out of service, June 29,
1865. It was discharged at Camp Chase. July 10, 1865.
     THE FIRST OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY was organized at Columbus 
during the latter part of the summer of 1861, under the first call of
President Lincoln for three years' service. As it was the first organiza-
tion of the kind in the State, there was a great anxiety, and in the
selection of its members, a fine, physically developed regiment was
procured. The strictest military discipline was inaugurated, and a
high degree of efficiency soon attained.
     Company F was from Fairfield county, recruited by its Captain,
Valentine Cupp, who was afterwards promoted to Major and Lieuten-
ant-Colonel, and fell at Chickamauga. Lafayette Pickering, the First
Lieutenant, succeeded to the Captaincy.  The other Lieutenants
of the company, during its services, were J. H. Pierce, resigned; Allen
T. Overly, mustered out; Wm. G. Lowder, mustered out as Captain;
George V. Ward, mustered out; Henry G. Ward, resigned; Wm. T.
Brison mustered out, and Geo. W. Keys, honorably discharged.
     December 9th the First proceeded to Louisville, the first regiment 
of cavalry to enter that department.  It will be impossible to
even mention all its services, and only the most important will be 
noticed. It was almost constantly engaged in scouting, skirmishing, raid-
ing and clearing the country of guerrillas and bush-whackers, when
not charging the enemy in battle.   In January, 1862. among other
rebel parties encountered in Kentucky, was a detachment of the John
Morgan guerrillas, who were severely handled. The regiment partici-
pated in the advance on Corinth, and frequently engaged the enemy in
the vicinity of Murfreesboro; from December 26 to 31 it was repeat-
edly in conflict. On the 31st it covered the retreat of our infantry.
The brave Colonel Milligan in command of the regiment, Major Moore
and Lieutenant Condit, and a long list of men were slain in checking
the overwhelming, advancing foes. Perceiving the imminent danger of
the infantry, the Colonel dashed fearlessly into the pursuing rebels
without any support, until entirely surrounded. He succeeded in check-
ing the advance momentarily, and then cut his way out of the lines
again, but the gallant strike cost him his life.   In June, 1863, the
brigade to which the First was attached, moved on the extreme left of
the army in its advance on Tullahoma. On August 18, the regiment
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Cupp, crossed the Cumberland
Mountains with its brigade, and captured a number of prisoners.
     On Sunday, September 19 the First arrived at Chickamauga and
was immediately led into the fight on the right. Through some misap-
prehension the Lieutenant-Colonel was ordered to charge the enemy's
line, and with drawn sabers the little band of about two hundred and
fifty men---four companies being detached---started across the interven-
ing space to precipitate themselves upon the foe when the order was
countermanded. A moment later and scarcely a man could have
returned. As it was, the dashing and brave Cupp was slain and one-
fifth of the rank and file were killed or wounded.
     In September the First rendered General Crook's Division in East
Tennessee signal service by encountering a vastly superior force of
rebel cavalry under General Wheeler.
     In November, with five other cavalry regiments under Colonel
Long, the First moved from about Chattanooga, crossed the river and
made a raid in the rear of Brigg's position, which was brilliantly suc-
cessful. Twenty miles of railroad and the largest percussion-cap and
torpedo manufactury in the Confederacy were destroyed, two hundred
wagons burned, six hundred horses and mules and five hundred prison-
ers captured and brought into Chattanooga. Other successful raids 
followed.
     In January 1864, about three hundred men re-enlisted and the regi-
ment was recruited. May 26 it participated at Moulton and lost about
twenty men. In front of Kenesaw the First had frequent and severe
skirmishing. Captain Pickering was wounded here. When surrounded
by the enemy at Lovejoy's Station the regiment distinguished itself
by holding in check, for some time, a force from Cleburne's rebel in-
fantry, suffering a loss of fifty men. After the evacuation of Atlanta
the non-veterans were mustered out and the regiment weakened some-
what. October 13, it carried the advance of Garrard's Division in the
fight near Rome, Georgia. Soon after the First was sent to Louisville,
Kentucky, to be refitted for the field.
     December 28, it left Louisville to join the cavalry corps near Gravelly
Springs, Alabama. From March 19, 1865 to April 22, when it entered
Macon, the First was in continual active service. The last severe 
engagement in which it participated was the night assault on Columbus;
by the capture of which its arsenals and factories were possessed, and
twelve hundred prisoners and ninety-six cannons taken.  The 
regiment continued to garrison Georgia and South Carolina until 
September when it was mustered out and discharged.
     THE ELEVENTH OHIO CAVALRY also contained a company which
was largely recruited from Fairfield county, Company C. John Van
Pearce was first authorized to recruit a company for the Sixth Cavalry,
but before it was completed, orders were issued to stop the enlistment
of cavalry, and the partially formed Sixth and Seventh Regiments were
consolidated. Of the new regiment thus formed a battalion of four
companies were mounted and equipped, and these, impatient at delay,
were ordered to St. Louis, Missouri, leaving the other two battalions in
Ohio. They never met afterwards, and the connection between them
was permanently dissolved.
     The Western Battalion contained Company C, which was officered
by Thomas L. Mackey, of Chillicothe, Captain; John Van Pearce, of
Lancaster, First Lieutenant, and Thomas P. Clark, of Springfield,
Second Lieutenant. Through the promotion of Mackey, Van Pearce
became Captain, and John P. Reeves, of Lancaster, Lieutenant.
     The four companies were known as the First Independent Battalion,
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, until the summer of 1862 when two battalions
were added and the organization denominated the Eleventh O.V.C.
While the battalion was at Benton Barracks, awaiting the movement



 

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of an expedition to the southwest, of which it was to form a part,
the Indians, instigated by rebel agents, became hostile and cut off all
communication, overland, with the Pacific. The battalion was ordered
to proceed at once across the plains to open and protect communication.
It left St. Louis April 4, and reached Fort Laramie after great suffering,
May 30. From this. point the battalion was scattered in small
detachments almost to Salt Lake City. The small number of troops and
the vast extent of territory under their charge made the services 
extremely active, arduous and hazardous.
     Company C was scattered between Sweet Water Crossing to South
Pass during 1862, chiefly in three detachments under Captain Mackey,
Lieutenants Clark and Reeves. In the fall the company was re-united
and built Fort Halleck, where it remained the following winter.  The
summer of 1863 was spent on the River Cache la Poudre to protect the
Overland Mail Route from Indian depredations.
     The troops at Fort Halleck were menaced by the Ute Indians in
February 1863, and Company C was ordered to march to their relief.
While on the route a terrible snow storm overtook them, from which
all suffered to a greater or less extent. Two men, John Griffith and
Courtright, were frozen in their saddles. This is only one of many inci-
dents that happened to the Eleventh in its frontier service. The first
battalion was mustered out April 1, 1865, having served about three
years and a half.
     There were many other regiments which contained a number of
Fairfield county men, yet few, if any, that contained an entire com-
pany. The aggregate, however, was very considerable.   In all, the
county had in service more than three thousand soldiers. These were
almost all volunteers. Only one or two drafts were made, and they
were quite small.
     In the Sixty-second, Clement F. Steele, of Lancaster, was commis-
sioned Major at its organization but rose to the rank of Lieutenant-
Colonel.  The regiment contained a few Fairfield county soldiers.
Henry B. Hunter, of Lancaster, was Lieutenant-Colonel in the One
Hundred and Twenty-third.
     The Fourth and the Tenth Ohio Cavalry each included in its ranks
a quoto from this county. The Twelfth U. S. Regulars, Company A,
was partially recruited here.  The Seventy-third, One Hundred and
Seventy-sixth, Eighteenth, Sixtieth and many others were also 
represented.
     GENERALS.---Fairfield county may well pride herself on the number
and ability of the commanders she furnished for the war. Besides the
regiment and company officers, whose record for brave and gallant ser-
vice is not surpassed by any other county, she can claim a Lieutenant-
General, two Major-Generals and several Brigadier-Generals.
     William T. Sherman, now General of the United States Army, was
born at Lancaster, February 8, 1820. His father, an eminent lawyer,
died when William T. was nine years old and he was adopted into the
family of Hon. Thomas Ewing. He entered West Point in 1836 and
graduated four years later. Remaining in the regular service thirteen
years, he resigned his commission to engage in banking business at
San Francisco. In 1857 he turned his attention to law and practiced
for a year or two in Kansas.  He conducted the Louisiana Military
Academy for a year or more but resigned on the first intimations of the
approaching war. When called to his nation's service he was Presi-
dent of the St. Louis Street Railroad Company.  His brilliant career
throughout the four years' struggle has immortalized his name and
made it a familiar household word of devoted patriotism.
     Thomas H. Ewing, the son of Hon. Thomas Ewing, was born at
Lancaster, August 11, 1829. He received a liberal education and 
began practice at the bar. In 1856 he removed to Leavenworth, Kansas,
and soon rose to the rank of a leading lawyer.   He recruited the
Eleventh Kansas Infantry, of which he was appointed Colonel.  For
gallant services at Prairie Grove he was promoted to Brigadier-General
in March, 1863. and soon after assigned to the command of the Dis-
trict of the Border, afterwards to the St. Louis District.   At Pilot
Knob, September 27, 1864, he commenced one of the most stubborn
and sanguinary conflicts of the war, with an enemy vastly exceeding
him in the number of men. His withdrawal from the place and the
retirement of his forces to Rolla was masterly, and won for him the
rank of Brevet Major-General. He resigned his command March 12,
1865.
     Hugh Ewing. the brother of Thomas Ewing, was engaged in the
practice of law at the breaking out of the war.  He was appointed
Brigade Inspector of the Third Brigade, Ohio Militia, in May, 1861;
participated in the battle of Rich Mountain, and in August, 1861, was
appointed Colonel of the Fortieth.   He rose to the command of a
brigade and served efficiently throughout the war.  For meritorious
services he was brevetted Major-General, March 13, 1865.
     The connection of Jacob A. Stafford with the First Ohio, and as
Colonel of the One Hundred and Seventy-eighth, has already been
mentioned.  March 13, 1865, he was brevetted Brigadier-General.
No officer in the army possessed the confidence of his men or was more
intensely liked than General Stafford. Though a severe disciplinarian
he was generous and brave, accustomed to spring from his horse and
lead his regiment afoot to victory.
     Newton Schleich was appointed one of the three Brigadier-Generals
to command Ohio troops during the three months' service. At the ex-
piration of that time he recruited and commanded the Sixty-first Ohio,
as already narrated.



 

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                              Chapter XX.
                    EARLY HISTORY OF LANCASTER

     EBENEZER ZANE was the owner of a section of land, one mile square,
upon which Lancaster was built. He acquired this section from the
Government, as part compensation for opening "Zane's Trace," from
Wheeling, West Virginia, to Limestone, (Maysville), Kentucky, in
1797.
     His article of agreement, with the first purchasers of lots, is as 
follows:
     Article of agreement, made and entered into by and between 
Ebenezer Zane, of Ohio county, Virginia, and the purchasers of lots in
the town of Lancaster, county of Fairfield, Territory northwest of the
Ohio River, now, for sale in lots, on the east side of the Hocking River,
by Ebenezer Zane.
     SECTION I.---The lots to be numbered in squares, beginning at the
northwest corner of the town. and thence alternately from north to
south, and from south to north, agreeable to the general draft of the
town.
     SECTION II.---One-fourth of the purchase money will be required to
be paid two weeks from the date of this article. The residue of three-
fourths will be required on or before the fourteenth day of November,
one thousand eight hundred and two, to be approved by secured notes,
bearing lawful interest, from the fourteenth day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred.
     SECTION III.---Square number sixteen, including five lots situated in
the southeast corner of the town, was thereafter to be held in trust, for
the use of a graveyard, the erection of a school-house, a house of worship, 
and such other buildings as may be found necessary, all of which
to be under the direction of trustees for the time being.
     Also, four lots at the intersection of the two main streets, running
east and west, north and south, known by appellation of the center
square, are given for the purpose of erecting public buildings not 
heretofore specified, but under the supervision of the trustees.
     SECTION IV.---Possession will be given immediately to purchasers
complying with Section II of this article; when fully complied with, the
said Ebenezer Zane and heirs bind themselves to make a deed to the
purchasers, their heirs and assigns. If the terms be not fully complied
with, the lot shall be considered forfeited, and returned again to the
original holder.
     SECTION V.---For the convenience of the town, one-fourth part of
an acre, lying west of the lot numbered two, in the square numbered
three, including two springs, will be, and are hereby given for the use
of its inhabitants, as the trustees of the town may think proper.
     SECTION VI.---In consideration of the advantages that arise from
the early settlement of mechanics in a town, and the encouragement of
those who may first settle, lot number three, in the twentieth square;
number six, in the fifteenth square; number six, in the twelfth square;
will be given, one to a blacksmith, one to a house carpenter and joiner,
and one to a tanner, all of whom are to settle, and continue in the
town, pursuing their respective trades, for the term of four years, at
which time the aforesaid Zane binds himself to make them a free deed.
     In testimony of all and singular, the premises, the said Ebenezer
Zane, by his attorneys, Noah and John Zane, hath hereunto set his
hand and affixed his seal, this fourteenth day of November, in the year
of our Lord 1800.                                  EBENEZER ZANE,

     A full list of the names of the first settlers of Lancaster are here
given, the last one dying more than forty years ago. They purchased
their lots during the years 1800-1-2:
     Emanuel Carpenter, Noah McCullough, Jacob Taylor, Ralph Dud-
dleston, Ebenezer Marten, Peter Reber, John Barr, John Reed, J.
Denny, Benjamin Allen, Nathaniel Willes, Thomas Worthington,
Thomas Terree, Noah Zane, John Zane, Jeremiah Conaway, Jacob
Teller, Peter Teller, Philip Teller, B. Teller, Abraham Reeger, Nathaniel
 Johnston, William Trimble, William Stoops, Thomas Barr, Joseph
Beard, Nathaniel Wilson, James Denny, Kerp, Grubb, and Hampson,
Michael Skoag, Joseph McMullen, John McMullen, Thomas Sturgeon,
John Overdear, Rudolph Pitcher, Ralph Morris, Joseph Hunter, Jacob
Woolford, Henry Meison, James Converse, George Coffenberry, James
Hanson, John Williamson, Samuel Coats, William Harper, Mary Pastor, 
John Vanmeter, Solomon Reese, James Hardy, William Rabb,
John Lynch, John Jups, John Carson, Amasa Delano, Henry Westwine.
     Lancaster, the county seat of Fairfield county, received its name as
complimentary to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, many of its first citizens 
being former residents of that town and county.
     It was first called New Lancaster, but it soon became obvious that
confusion would arise in the mail service between New Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, and New Lancaster, Ohio. To avoid this, the 
Legislature of 1805 changed the name to that of Lancaster.
     The place continued, however, to be called New Lancaster for
years afterwards, and mistakes in sending letters continued to occur,
until 1840, Pennsylvania mail being received at Lancaster, Ohio, and
letters intended for the latter place, were carried to the former.
     Lancaster is situated on the east bank of the Hocking River, and in
the northeast corner of Hocking township. In 1877, its eastern boundary 
was parallel with the western line of Berne township, where Maple
street is now located, running due north and south, so that citizens 
residing east of that line, and all of East Lancaster, were in Berne town-
ship.  By an act of the Legislature, East Lancaster was annexed to
Lancaster, and constituted the Fifth ward.  By the same act, the
boundaries of Lancaster were extended one mile each way, making a
square of two miles, which territory was by law annexed to Lancaster 
township, with a municipal organization independent of the city
proper.



 

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The boundary lines of Zane's section of land has been variously 
located by the old citizens of Lancaster. It has been generally 
understood that "Lundy's Lane" was the north line of the section. Good
authorities locate this line ten miles south. No dispute has yet arisen
in regard to the east boundary.
     The southeast corner of the section is near the residence of Squire
Thomas H. White (Kuntz's Hill), thence west to the residence of G.
Mithoff; then north to the intersection of the northern line.
     In November, 1800, one month prior to Governor St. Clair's declar-
ation of Fairfield county, Lancaster was surveyed, and the sale of lots
begun, the prices ranging from five to fifty dollars, according to 
location.
     A lot of two acres was donated by Zane for public use. This is
divided into four equal parts by the crossing of Main street and 
Broadway.
     In after years legal opinions were at variance in regard to the use
to be made of this donation. It was contended by some that the city
authorities could not sell and convey the ground without forfeiting the
title, yet they had the right to erect upon it any kind of buildings they
wished, providing the rent or other income should be used for public
purposes. Others contended that no buildings, except those to be used
exclusively for the public, could legally be erected.
     In 1879-80 a test was made in the case, where the city authorities
leased the west half of the square, lying on the north side of Main
street, to a company, to erect an opera house, city hall, and offices,
the lower rooms to be used as offices. On the west half it was leased
for the building of a business block.
     The leases were perpetual, or ninety-nine years. An injunction
was served and sustained by the Common Pleas Court, and this part of
the public square remains yet (1881) vacant.
     A part of the ground upon which the injunction was allowed was the
allegation by the heirs of Frederick Schaeffer, contending that the erection 
of such buildings as proposed would materially damage the Shaeffer 
property, they claiming the required right of the pavement on the
east side of the Shaeffer block, this being a public thoroughfare.
     In 1824, the market house was erected on the south side of the
square, and later the City Hall, "Old Red Lodge" building, and
public scales.
     At the time of the founding of Lancaster, and the sale of lots, not
more than two or three small cabins were built on the east of Hocking. 
The entire site of the present city, from Mount Pleasant south
to the bank of Hocking, was a wild forest of trees and underbrush, 
interspersed with ponds of water and deep marshy swales. One of the
swales at the north crossing of Main Street was filled with water the
year round and used as a watering place for stock. Another, where the
Talmage block now stands, was at times deep enough to swim a horse.
These places have since been filled up for building lots. As late as
1841, Neibling's pond, north of King street, was inclosed with trees and
thickets of under-brush, affording resort for flocks of wild geese and
ducks, for the pleasure of sportsmen, and in winter, affording a fine
sliding place for the boys.
In 1841 nearly the entire northern part of the city was either
vacant land, or fields of grain. A few buildings extended out on 
Columbus street north to the Wagenhall neighborhood.
     On Broadway, the most northern building was a small frame, 
occupied by Mrs. Peebles, and now owned by F. J. Boving.
     East of Neibling's pond, were several smaller ponds, also in the 
direction of Mount Pleasant. They are now all filled, and built upon,
first being drained by sewers from King street, passing out under the
canal.
     The square on the hill, donated by Zane, for a cemetery and the
erection of a house of worship, is located between High street on the
west, Chestnut street on the north, Broad alley on the east and the
Methodist church lot on the south.
     Zane sold the south half of his section to Emanuel Carpenter, who
laid a portion of it out into town lots, and sold to purchasers. In the
original survey of Lancaster, the principal streets were Chestnut, Main
and Wheeling, running east and west, and the cross streets were 
Columbus, Broadway and High. These still remain unchanged.
     The exact route of ''Zane's trace" through Lancaster is supposed
to have entered from the east on Wheeling street to Columbus street,
here diverging to the left, crossing Main street, east of the present
canal, passing between the canal bridge and the first lock, thence to the
crossing of the Hocking.
     At an early day Christian King, one of the merchants of Lancaster 
at that time, assisted by his brother William, built a toll bridge over
Hocking, which was kept up until the enterprise of constructing the
Maysville and Zanesville turnpike road, when the company purchased
his right, and located their road on the same route, the bridge at that
day being a public necessity. The Hocking, at times, overflowed its
banks, making the road, during a freshet, impassible. The bridge 
extended in both directions, over the marshy ground, and was an 
accommodation to the public.
     It is said that many of the first settlers of .Lancaster were mechanics,
building their small one story cabins, of logs cut from the lot upon
which they were built, probably covering it with clapboards, made from
a sturdy oak, slabs or puncheon being used for floors. At times
mother earth served as this last purpose, while the smoke curled forth
from the stick and mud chimney. The newly opened streets were 
covered with stumps and unremoved logs. Rail fences, if any, inclosed
the lots. Few domestic animals were to be seen. Small patches of
ground, were cleared for garden patches. Such was Lancaster more than
eighty years ago.
     At that time, (1800) squads of Indians were still lingering in the
valley of the Hocking; camping near Lancaster; spending their time
hunting during the summer and fall, but in the winter disappearing.
     They were daily visitors at the cabins of the villagers, always
peaceable and friendly, never causing trouble, unless under the influence
of liquor, when they required careful watching.
     In a very early day a sickle factory was in operation at Lancaster.
It was located on the north bank of the Hocking, near the fourth lock.
It obtained water power from "Baldwin's Run." It was in operation,



 

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as near as remembered, previous to 1810. It was established for the
manufacture of reaping sickles, and the building is reported by David
Foster not to have been moved until 1828. The builder and owner's 
name being disputed, it is given by some parties as Frank, by
others as Roland.
     In the winter of 1876-7 a tunnel was sunk under the canal, to give
outlet to the water from the low lands on the north side. In doing this
the foundation of this factory building, including the water wheel part
of a grinding stone and other relics, were found buried two or three feet
below the surface.
     A quarter of a mile south of the sickle factory, a water power mill
for breaking and scutching flax, was in operation. This, as reported
by Mr. Foster, belonged to the owner of the sickle factory, and was
built on the site of the frame dwelling, belonging to the Giesy mill, and
is first remembered as being in operation, in 1816. Every vestige of
the building has long since disappeared.
     A powder mill, owned and run by George Bickler, was in operation
about the same time, on the Fricker farm, a short distance southwest of
Lancaster.
     Dr. Charles Shawk, came with his father from Kentucky, and settled 
in Lancaster in 1806, then a small boy, but now over eighty years
of age. He has a distinct recollection of the infant days of Lancaster;
remembers seeing horses swim the pond, (spoken of elsewhere) now
covered by the west end of the Talmadge block; wagons swamped 
in the mud in Main street, and men prying them out with long poles;
hearing Governor Worthington make a speech in the old court house
yard, in 1810, when he was a candidate, and how he was cheered, 
being a favorite of the people.
     He mentioned Governor Worthington and Judge Abrams, being 
engaged in surveying the land, in the vicinity of Lancaster, and down
Hocking, into what is now Hocking county; remembering that at
that time a part of Main street was bridged with poles, called corduroy; 
that bears and deer often came into town, and flocks of wild
turkeys straying through the woods near the cabins in day time, was a
common occurrence. When he came, (1806) but six or eight cabins
were then built on Wheeling street, and on Main street about thirty.
These constituted the village. On account of the condition of Main
street in muddy weather, Wheeling became the principal thoroughfare.
He remembered the rough and tumble fights so common on muster
day, or other public gatherings. In 1817, he shot and killed a huge
bear on Kuntz's hill, now within the corporation. About the same time
John Rhodes killed a panther near there. It measured seven feet from
the tip of the tail to the tip of the nose.
     In 1812, Mrs. Flora Butler King, relict of Christian King, came to
Lancaster, and taught school in a small log cabin, where Dr. Turner's
brick office now stands, on Main street. She was the first lady teacher
in Lancaster.
     At this time, ( 1812) William King and John Creed were the princi-
pal dry goods merchants, though there were several others selling dry
goods. The doctors were, Wilson, Torrence and Shawk; leading
lawyers, Philomon Beecher, William Irwin and Robert F. Slaughter.
The principal taverns were kept by Thomas Sturgeon and Joh
Sawyer.
     Frederick A. Foster, who died in the early part of 1880 at the age
of eighty-nine, came to Lancaster in 1810. A short time before his
death he stated that when he arrived in the place, there was but a single 
brick house in the village, that being built on the Schofield property,
now the gunsmith shop of Herman Peter, previously the law office of
John T. Brazee.
     In the fall of the same year (1810) Philoman Beecher built his brick
office adjoining his residence, on what is now known as the Rising 
corner. The third brick building was the residence of John Wright, on
the north side of Main street, now the residence of H. J. Reinmund.
     Mr. Foster also referred to the typhoid epidemic that prevailed in
Lancaster in 1823, and that not more than two persons in the village,
Christian Weaver and himself, escaped this fatal disease.  A great
many of the prominent citizens died. He and Mr. Weaver escaping
the malady, the care of the sick, as well as the burial of the dead, 
devolved upon them.
     In 1799 the government established a mail route from Wheeling, Vir-
ginia, to Limestone, Kentucky, to be carried on horse back over "Zane's
Trace," once a week, each way, the whole distance being two hundred 
and twenty six miles. With the exception of a few cabins at the
crossing of the Muskingum, Hocking and Scioto Rivers, almost the
entire distance was an unbroken wilderness. The line was divided into
three routes. The first extended from Wheeling to the Muskingum;
the second, from the Muskingum to the Scioto, and the third, from that
to the Ohio at Limestone.  This was the first mail route established in
the "Northwest Territory."
     A post office was established at the same crossing of Hocking. This
was about one year before Lancaster was laid out. Samuel Coates,
sr., was appointed postmaster, and kept the office in his cabin, at
the crossing.
     Samuel Coates, sr., and his son, Samuel Coates, jr , were Englishmen,
who came from England to the United States for the purpose of making
the new country their home; having penetrated as far as the Hocking, 
they stopped at the crossing, put up a cabin, and planted a patch
of corn. As soon as they established a settlement, their families were
sent for. The elder Coates did not long survive, and his place in the
office was taken charge of by his son.
     After Lancaster began to assume the appearance of a village, the
post-office was removed to a cabin at the west end of Wheeling street,
on the same lot where James Kinney now lives. Previous to the rebellion,
the post-office was removed to an apartment in the new city hall
building, where it still remains.
     The following are the post-masters that have served since 1799, to
1881: Samuel Coates, Senior, Samuel Coates, Junior, Jacob D. Ditrich, 
E. Scofield, H. Drumm, Thomas N. White, Daniel Sifford, Henry
Miers, James Craumer, John C. Castle, Benjamin Connell, J. L. Luthill, 
C. M. L. Wiseman, and John M. Sutphen, now (1881) serving his
third appointment.
     The late General George Sanderson, when a boy fifteen years old,



 

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140
carried the mail between Lancaster and Chillicothe.  Christian Rudolph, 
one of Lancaster's oldest citizens, was at one time mail boy between 
Lancaster and Zanesville. He was hired by Richard M. John-
son, who, at that time, had the contract for carrying the mail between
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and Limestone (Maysville), Kentucky. Mr.
Rudolph began the service in October, 1815. His route required him
to be out, sometimes, all night, which, over narrow roads through 
forests, dark nights, and cold weather, made it a dreary and lonesome
task for a young boy.
     On one occasion, arriving at Zanesville late in the night, and being
behind time, he received his mail and turned back, coming as far as
Somerset without feeding his horse or taking anything to eat himself.
He had several streams to cross, sometimes when the water was danger-
ously high from a freshet. The river was crossed in canoes, and horses
changed on each side.
     Two or three years after he began to carry the mail, open box-
wagons were placed upon the road, the new contract requiring the mail
to be carried six months in wagons, and six on horseback, this contract
being with John Dugan. In 1820, stage coaches were introduced on
this line.
     The mail carriers in early times carried tin horns, or trumpets,
which were blown when approaching the post-offices. These were 
denominated the "post-boy's horn. Some of the carriers acquired the
art of blowing tunes on their long, tin trumpets, which, on quiet evenings, 
wakened the country far and near.  The sound of the "post-
boy's horn" aroused a lively cheer as far as the sound penetrated, often
bringing joy to many a weary heart.
     The charges for carrying letters then was regulated by distance, and
not weight, as now. For fifty miles, and under, the rate was six and
one-fourth cents. Over fifty miles, and under one hundred and fifty,
twelve and one-half cents. Between one hundred and fifty and three
hundred miles, eighteen and three-fourth cents, and over three hundred
to any part of the United States, twenty-five cents.
     It was the duty of the post-master to mark the price of the letter in
figures on the outside. If the postage was prepaid, the word "paid" was
also written. If not, the price marked was paid by the person addressed.
Two sheets folded together was charged double rates.
     These old-fashioned letters were written on the pages of the sheet,
which was afterwards so folded as to allow the blank side to form the
outside of the letter, upon which the address was written. The fourth
page of letter paper was left unruled for this purpose.  The old-time
letters were sealed with sealing-wax in the form of wafers, which were
for sale in all stores and groceries. They were in color, red, blue, black
or green. Now they are not to be found anywhere, except as unsold
rubbish, pushed on the back shelf. The introduction of envelopes has
superceded them.
     COLORED PEOPLE OF LANCASTER.---There were colored persons
among the very early settlers of Lancaster, as a number are remembered
to have come to the place previous to the year 1810. They were mostly 
emancipated slaves from the state of Virginia. A few were brought
out with their former masters, who emigrated to Ohio. Since the
beginning of the War of the Rebellion, many have came into the county
from the Confederate states.
     The Lewis family, it is believed, were among the first of the race
who came to Lancaster-the father, mother and three children.  Stephen, 
the oldest, married Judy Jones. He died many years ago. His
wife, familiarly known as "Aunt Judy," survived him many years, and
died about 1880.   "Aunt Disa" was the sister.   She lived to a
great age, and has been dead a few years. She boasted of having
nursed General Washington. Problematical. Elijah Jones is still a
locum tenens, at an age that the memory of man runneth not therewith.
Scipio Smith was a very early settler. He came from Virginia, and
was a tinner by trade. His death occurred not far from 1860---probably
a little earlier. He is remembered by his artificial leg, and his exceed-
ingly black face. Reuben Banks dated the time of his arrival in 1814.
He was an emancipated slave from Virginia, and thought he was four-
teen years old when he came to Lancaster; his death took place in 1881.
Nelson Smith was a very old settler, and was a popular barber in
Lancaster for full fifty years. He died in 1880, at an advanced age.
His sons, of whom Egbert is the oldest, have succeeded him in the
tonsorial profession.
     There were many other well-known colored characters residing
in Lancaster during its early years, but space forbids further mention 
of them.  Some of them possessed peculiar traits, and most of
them spent lives of usefulness, though generally in the humbler 
avenues of life.