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                               Chapter XV.
                         OHIO REFORM SCHOOL

     The first action looking towards the establishment in Ohio of a 
reform school for boys, took place in session of the legislature for 1857.
James Monroe, member from Oberlin, introduced a bill providing for
an appropriation of $l,000 to defray the expenses of commissioners, to
inquire into and examine existing institutions. The bill was not passed.
     The suggestions made by Charles Remelin of Cincinnati, upon his
return from Europe, where he spent some time in the examination of
reformatory institutions for youth, gave the first effective impetus to the
project in Ohio. In 1858 an appropriation was voted, commissioners
appointed, and a site purchased. Cheap log buildings were forthwith
erected and fitted for occupancy, and on the 30th day of January, 1858
ten boys were brought from the House of Refuge of Cincinnati, and
placed there.
     The general management of the Reform Farm was, by law, vested
in three commissioners, one of whom, Geo. E. Howe, was constituted
acting commissioner, who with his family, resided on the farm. In
the acting commissioner was lodged the duties of general superintendent, 
purchasing agent, disbursing agent, stewart, and bookkeeper. He
also had the power of appointing and discharging all subordinates, 
subject to the concurrence of his associates. The law also provided for an
assistant superintendent; and James G. Randall was appointed. Mrs.
Howe, wife of the acting commissioner, was appointed matron, and
Mrs. Sarah Randall, wife of assistant superintendent, assistant matron.
Mr. Howe held the position of acting commissioner from the beginning
until the spring of 1878, in all, nine years. Mrs. Howe was matron
during the time. Mr. and Mrs. Randall have also held their positions
from their first appointment, and are still acting.
     During the session of the Legislature of the winter of 1878, a new
Act was passed, reorganizing the benevolent institutions of the State.
The Act provided for the appointment, by the Governor, of five trustees,
to take the place of the three commissioners.  These trustees were
vested with the duty of electing one superintendent and matron, outside 
of the board of trustees; also, an assistant superintendent and
matron.
     At the first meeting of the board of trustees, John C. Hite, of
Lancaster, was elected superintendent, and Mrs. Hite, matron. Mr.
and Mrs. Randall were, at the same time, elected assistants. At the
end of one year, viz: in the spring of 1879, Col. G. S. Innis, of 
Columbus, was elected superintendent, vice J. C. Hite, and Mrs. Innis, 
matron. In the spring of 1880, Charles Douglass, of Toledo, was elected
superintendent, and Mrs. Douglass, matron, Mr. and Mrs. Randall
being annually continued.
The same act of reorganization also provided for the appointment of
a secretary and steward.  Mr. Berry, of Cincinnati, was appointed
secretary, and William Van Hyde, of Lancaster, steward. Subsequently, 
the functions of the secretary and steward were consolidated,
and Mr. Berry filled both positions until his resignation, in the spring of
1880. At the annual election of that spring, C. M. L. Wiseman, of
Lancaster, was elected secretary and steward.
     A further Act of the Legislature, supplementing the reorganizing
Act of 1878, provided for the annual appointment of one trustee, as the
terms of the incumbents respectively expired, in such manner, that the
board should consist of four members, with the acting Governor of the
State as the fifth member, but only to act when a deciding vote became
necessary; and further, that said board of four trustees should be so
appointed as to consist perpetually of two Democrats and two 
Republicans.
     The Ohio Reform Farm consists of 1170 acres, and is situated six
miles from Lancaster, a little south of southwest. The surface is 
exceedingly rugged in some of its parts, being cut with sharp ravines,
with out-cropping sandrock. The soil, for the most part, is poor, being
mixed all over the farm with the grindings of the old red sandstone,
which underlies the entire surface. The timber is chestnut, white and
pitch pine, scrubby oak of several varieties, laurel, and whortleberry.
There are some belts of fair soil. The hill slopes are well adapted to
grape and peach growing, while the upper tablelands have been 
recovered, and are used for gardening and vegetables generally.
     Very little grass can be produced on the farm; in dry seasons, not
even green pasturage, sufficient for the few cattle that are required.
The poorest of the hills produce nothing but ferns, whortleberry, and a
few scrubby bushes. Small quantities of wheat and oats can be produced. 
Peaches, as a rule, have done well, as also strawberries and
blackberries. Both of these have received considerable attention. In
1880, there were 30 acres of gardening, 8,000 peach trees, and besides,
about 400 acres of tillable ground. Apples are produced in considerable 
quantities. The highest surfaces are about six hundred feet above
low water in the Hocking, four or five miles east, and about five 
hundred above the site of Lancaster.
     The farm is reached, from Lancaster, over a good summer road,
along pine-covered ridges, that, in warm days, make the air redolent
with resinous exhalations, and presenting to the eye, on either hand,
stretching off in the distance, romantic scenery, nowhere surpassed in
Ohio. From its elevated position, the air is healthful and bracing in
summer.
     From a very humble beginning, in January, 1858, when ten boys
were brought from Cincinnati, and placed in the first rude wooden
buildings erected, the farm has grown into a place of gigantic propor-
tions and beauty. The idea seems to have been popular from the start.
Soon other boys were brought, and the need of more room became 
apparent.
     The attention of the Legislature was awakened, and ample appro-
priations were not wanting. The log structures soon disappeared, and
fine, brick buildings took their place.



 

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     The main building is 161 feet in length, with projections. It contains 
offices, reception rooms, parlors, dining rooms, residences, guest
rooms, storage rooms, council chamber, and telegraph office. The
kitchen, culinary department, and boys' dining rooms, are all in 
projections of the main building. This is situated centrally, with regard
to the other buildings.
     What are denominated family buildings are two story bricks, with
basement story. The basement is the wash room and play place for
the boys; the second story is the school room, and apartments of the
elder brother and his family; the third story is the sleeping apartment
for boys. There are nine of these family buildings, besides union 
family buildings. The other buildings of the farm are; first, the chapel;
then shops, laundry, and wash house, water tower, bake house, engine
house, stables, hot houses, coal houses, hospital, ice house, mending
room, knitting room, piggery, and chamber of reflection, besides many
other out-buildings. The buildings are disposed in squares, more or
less spaced, and altogether occupy an area of probably twenty acres.
The Ohio building, which is the home of the small boys of ten years
and under, is isolated from the others, and stands off nearly a mile to
the east, and is in connection with the chapel and main grounds by a
good plank walk. The grounds are laid off with gravel drives and
plank walks, and are beautifully decorated with evergreen trees, arbors,
flower houses, and grass lawns.
     The family buildings are named after rivers in Ohio, thus: Mus-
kingum, Ohio, Hocking, Scioto, Cuyahoga, Huron, Maumee, Miami,
and Erie. The family of boys of each building take the family name
after the building, as the Maumee family, Muskingum family, Hocking
family, etc.
     In the incipient state of the school, some discrepancy of opinion 
existed in regard to modes of discipline.   By some it was proposed to
adopt the House of Refuge plan, in part, in connection with the open
system. The latter was adopted. The time of the boys is divided 
between work of some kind, school, and recreation, Every boy is half
the day in school, and the other half at work. There is an hour for
dinner. Recreations are taken after supper, on Saturday afternoons,
sometimes, and on holidays.
     Each family is under the management of an officer, denominated the
elder brother, whose wife, with few exceptions, is the teacher.  The
branches taught are those of a common school English education.
Within the last three years, a grammar school department has been
added. The boys are held to close and rigid discipline, but treated
with uniform kindness and trust, whenever trust can be extended. One
of the leading features of the discipline is to inspire the inmates with
the ambition of earning a good reputation, and trustworthiness. In
many instances, boys are permitted the freedom of coming and going,
and even to transact business. Corporal punishment is only resorted to
in extreme cases, and is always with the rod.  A lock-up is provided
for the most incorrigible, and is denominated the "chamber of reflection." 
Here, those condemned to this mode of discipline, are left to
solitary confinement, until they are willing to make proper confession
of their wrong doing, and promise of amendment. In a few instances,
the chain and ball have been found necessary to restrain the vicious, or
to prevent escapes.
     A constant care is observed to prevent escapes by running away,
but numerous escapes have taken place notwithstanding. The boy
who escapes, and is returned, loses credit on his good conduct, the
effect of which is to protract the time of his detention.  Credit is
given for merit, and good boys work themselves out in shortened
time. No specified time is fixed in the commitment. The time is
left to the superintendent, and depends very much on the conduct of
the boy. The State pays five dollars each for the return of runaway
boys.
     In addition to school education and manual labor on the farm, 
mechanical branches are also taught. The institution has a shoe and boot
manufacturing establishment, a brush factory, a tailor shop, a cane-seat
making department, and a telegraph office. Several good telegraph
operators have left the farm, and are doing well. Other mechanical
trades have been learned there, that have been highly creditable to the
institution, and greatly advantageous to the boys. It is one of the cares
of the management to find homes for such boys, on their discharge, as
have no home to go to, and this duty is always carefully carried out.
Boys under sixteen years of age, who commit penitentiary crimes, are
usually sent to the Reform Farm; and some, who have been sentenced to
the state's prison, have been commuted to the farm.
     There is a hospital, for the sick, always provided with competent
nurses; and it is the duty of the matron to visit the hospital in person,
as often as may be necessary, to see that all is right, and that the wants
of the sick are properly attended to. A physician is appointed especially 
for the inmates, who resides in Lancaster, and can be called at
any hour. But this does not prevent the right of parents, or others,
from employing physicians of their preference to attend their sick boys,
at their own expense.
     Religious services are held in the chapel every Sabbath. This has,
for the most part, been done by the clergy of Lancaster, by alternation,
and for a compensation of five dollars for each visit. A Catholic priest
visits the farm, at stated periods, for the instruction of Catholic boys.
During the summer of 1880, a stated pastor was arranged for, and 
settled at the farm, but who, after a few months residence, resigned.
     A Sabbath school is maintained, at which all the boys are required
to attend, Catholics as well as Protestants. There is, also, a library,
provided by the state, for the use of the boys, and from which they
draw books under regulations.
     The number of inmates is constantly increasing. In commissioner
Howe's annual report to the governor for 1876, the number who had
passed through the institution, from the beginning to date, was given at
2,019; and in superintendent Douglass' report, of the date of Nov.
15, 1880, the number received at the farm, from the first, is given at
3,170, and 514 remaining. In June, 1881, the number of inmates 
exceeded 550.
     It is the concurrent testimony of all the official reports, that a large
majority of the boys, who have passed through the Reform Farm school,
have turned out well. Mr. Howe gave the proportion of those who



 

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were discharged during his nineteen years of control, and who did well,
at eighty percent.; and superintendent Douglass, in his report of Nov.
15, 1880, gives a similar favorable account. A few have turned out
badly.
     A complete history of the finances of the farm, from 1858 to the present,
cannot be easily obtained; nor would the specifications be important.
It may suffice to say, that the present value of the farm, with all its
buildings, improvements, and fixtures, exceeds half a million of dollars,
and that the appropriation asked for, by the trustees, for the year 
ending Nov. 15, 1871, was $105,340.
 



 

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                               Chapter XVI.
                THE LOG CABIN CAMPAIGN OF 1840
     WHEN General William Henry Harrison and John Tyler were placed
in nomination for the presidency, by the national convention, an indis-
creet, and not far-seeing Democratic editor, thinking, doubtless, to
make a coup de main in the start, penned a paragraph to the effect that
General Harrison was better qualified to sit in his log cabin, and drink
hard cider out of a gourd, than to be President of the United States. It
was, of all other things that could have been said, the worst for the 
opposition.
     From Maine to Florida, and from Charleston to Detroit, every Whig
organ saw its advantage, and turned it to account. It was not two
weeks before the whole country was in a blaze. The yeomanry did
not relish the idea of having their log cabins and hard cider referred
to derisively.  It was their proud boast, that they and their ancestors
had been dwellers in log cabins, and they did not want people, who sat
in cushioned chairs, or rode in "English coaches," to make fun of them.
But the paragraph had become public property and could not be recalled.
     "Tyler, too," chiming in so euphoneously with "Tippecanoe," it
became of easy construction in song, and at once Harrison was raised
to the hero of Tippecanoe, and the refrain, "And Tyler too," was soon
adopted by the people, and nothing could check the avalanche.
     Mr. Allen, notwithstanding his accustomed discretion and good
sense, made a mistake, when he said that the ladies of Chillicothe voted
General Harrison a "petticoat," for his prowess at the Thames, for, no
matter about the truth or untruth of the allegation, he should have fore-
seen that the not very dignified title of "Petticoat Allen" would be at-
tached to his name. He should have been astute enough to comprehend
that in the excited state of the popular mind, the masses would not stop
to inquire into the truth of his statement.
     They simply accepted it as a thrust at the log cabin candidate. Such
are the foundations of the log cabin and hard cider campaign. The
excitement came just on the heels of the universal financial crisis of
1837, and at a time when scarcely a bank bill in the whole country was
at par, and when the circulating medium consisted largely of corpora-
tion and individual shin-plasters. With few exceptions, the banks were
in a state of suspension, and the country was flooded with irredeemable
notes. The Bank of the United States had been suspended, and the
prospect ahead was gloomy enough, being one of these general condi-
tions of any country that incites the people to desire a change in the
administration of the public affairs. The occasion was opportune, and
the uprising of the masses was natural and legitimate.
     General Harrison and John Tyler were elected by an overwhelming
majority of the popular vote, as well as of the electoral college, having
two hundred and thirty-four electoral votes, to sixty for Van Buren and
Johnson.
     General Harrison died on the fourth day of April, 1841, thirty-one
days after his inauguration.   At this time, the administration passed
into the hands of the Vice President. But a revulsion soon followed,
and the same people who elected "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," in 1840,
without the experience of a test of his policy, undid all they had done.
     Thomas Corwin, who was elected Whig governor of Ohio, in 1840,
over Wilson Shannon, Democrat, by a majority of sixteen thousand,
was, in 1842, defeated by Shannon by a majority of over 2,000; and in
1844 James K. Polk was elected President by the Democratic party.
     The emblem of the Whig party was the buckeye; that of the Demo-
crats, the hickory---originating from the term, " Old Hickory, as applied 
to General Jackson. The emblems adopted by the Whigs, during
the campaign, were coon-skins, cider-barrels, live coons, blood-hounds,
and log cabins; while the Democrats added to their hickory pole, the
rooster and the petticoat. But the log cabin was the central and lead-
ing feature of the "Tippecanoe, and Tyler too," rally. They were to
be seen everywhere, from the miniature cabin of a foot square, nailed
on top of the gate-post, to the log cabin of a thousand capacity, covered
with clapboards. Almost every village had its log cabin, in which the
people assembled to sing, and make speeches. They were built in the
most primitive style, of unhewed logs and poles, and, sometimes, the
primitive stick and mud chimney. For the most part, their decorations
consisted of cider-barrels and coon-skins, attached to the logs on the
outside. On special occasions, the spectacle of a live hound, secured
on the roof, was no strange sight. Sometimes a rifle was to be seen,
lying in the wooden hooks on the wall, a gourd hanging beside the
door outside, etc.
     The Whigs of Lancaster built their log cabin near the old court
house. It was a very primitive appearing structure. However, many
a merry crowd was entertained within its walls, and it was, in fact, the
instrument of proselyting many a voter.   Only a few can remember
it, and the echo from the following, among other doggerels:
                    "We'll cut out a window, and have a wide door in,
                      We'll lay a good loft, and a first-rate floor in.
                      *     *     *     *     *     *     *     * 
                      On the fourth day of March Old Tip will move in it,
                      And then little Martin will have for to shin it.
                           Hurrah ! hurrah ! for Harrison and Tyler;
                           A nice log cabin, and a barrel of hard cider."
                    "Oh ! what, tell me what, will be your cabin's fate ?
                      We'll wheel it to the Capitol, and place it there in state,
                      For a token, and a sign, of the Bonnie Buckeye State. "
_
                    "What has caused this great commotion?
                                                  Motion, motion, motion.
                           It is the ball a rolling on,
                           For Tippecanoe, and Tyler too,
                           For Tippecanoe, and Tyler too,
                      And with them we'll beat little Van,
                                                  Van, Van, Van's a used-up man.
                      And with them we'll beat little Van."
_
                    "Three cheers for the old log cabin's friend,
                                                  Long time ago.
                      The cabin boys on him depend,
                                                  Long time ago.
                      In English coaches he's no rider,
                      But be can fight and drink hard cider,
                                                  Long time ago."



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The processions of the Whigs were comical enough, sometimes.
Every possible kind of vehicle was brought into requisition. Immense
wagons were improvised by fixing long poles on two pair of wheels;
and, when they could be procured, buckeye limbs and bushes were
either nailed on, or inserted into the poles, so as to present the appear-
ance of a moving grove of green buckeyes.   Seats were arranged, and
sometimes from seventy-five to one hundred persons would be crowded
into one of these large wagons.   Flags, banners, songs, and cheers
brightened the scene, and the levity of one of these occasions was 
participated in by the men, women, and children of the best families.
     The wagons often displayed the emblems and insignia of log cabin
life. The cider barrel usually is a prominent feature. Also, plows,
wooden harrows, pitchforks, flails, flaxbrakes, scutching board, hat-
chets, johnny cake boards, Dutch ovens, old-fashioned looms, and
women "making believe" they were weaving on them.
     Sometimes men appeared, as if in the act of threshing wheat;
others breaking and scutching flax; at other times, blacksmiths with
their sleeves rolled up appeared at their work; coopers were seen driv-
ing on hoops, others slinging the maul; women were represented as
being at the wash tub; perhaps a blood hound was visible; gourds
hanging on nails, and coon skins tacked up, were common appendages.
Raccoons were very common.
     One of these processions passed through the principal street of 
Lancaster, with "Mother Green," as a prominent feature. Mrs. Ruhama
Green, the pioneer mother, who was identified with the beginning of
Lancaster and Fairfield county, only survived this occasion two
years.
     When Gen. Harrison was to speak in Chillicothe, a large delega-
tion from Lancaster went down. The delegation left Lancaster very
early in the morning, and consisted of a long line of carriages and
horsemen. Arriving in the vicinity of Tarlton, a tall hickory pole, by
the roadside, indicated the residence of a Democrat. From its top flut-
tered a red petticoat. The boys called a halt, and said it must come
down, and began to look about for an axe. "Uncle Christ," over forty
years younger than he is now, was there with his four horse coach, filled 
with Whigs, He thought it would not be right to cut it down, and
proposed to climb the pole, and take down the offensive rag. When he
had reached about ten feet from the ground, his hands slipped and he
slid back to terra firma. Nothing could induce "Uncle Christ" to make
the second attempt, and the procession moved on, while possibly the
owner of the offensive pole was convulsed with laughter, as he viewed
from his concealment their discomfiture.
     The Whigs of Pickaway, Madison, north Clinton, Fayette and this
county, took up the line of march from Washington court house, about
the twentieth of July, for a grand march to the Hillsboro mass meeting,
leaving with three thousand strong. They were gone about three days,
leaving but very few Whigs at the court house, to take care of things.
Upon their return it was contemplated to hold a rousing meeting, in the
log cabin, standing near the south-west border of the town, with a 
seating capacity of about five hundred. It had been the scene of speech,
song and jubilation, all summer. The crowd that assembled there
nightly consisted largely of ladies, but during this lull in the merriment, 
the Democrats took advantage of the absent ones, having
things pretty much their own way. The log cabin, upon the return,
was found not only untenable, but unapproachable, so much so, that
renovation was rendered impossible; subsequently, as the only way of
abating an unendurable nuisance was to reduce it to ashes.
     In this dilemma, small posters were displayed about the town, in the
afternoon, to the effect that the "Tippecanoe Club," would meet 
tonight in the court house. Word was brought to the Whig headquar-
ters, that the Democrats had stolen into the court house, and organized
a meeting. Inside of twenty minutes forty stout Whigs marched
down the pavement by two's, seized the dozen Democrats, who were
going through the formula of a meeting, and set them down in the middle 
of the street. The president, whose avoirdupois fell but little short
of three hundred pounds, required a double force to transfer him.
     It amounted to nothing more than a big joke, not a word having
been spoken.
     On their way from the "Queen City," the stage (with the nine 
occupants,) stopped in a village to change horses and the mail. One of
the passengers was a grocer, and had in the coach a number of hideous
false faces. As they neared the town, the passengers, thinking to be-
guile the monotony of stage travel a little, concluded to have a little fun,
and, accordingly, each man drew on a mask. When entering the town,
seeing green buckeyes growing along the side-walks, they, legitimately
enough, concluded they were entering a good Whig village. When the
stage stopped in front of the tavern, they commenced to sing at the top
of their voices,
__                    "Old Tip's the boy to swing the flail,
                           Hurrah, Hurrah, Hurrah,
                      And make the Locos all turn pale,
                           Hurrah, Hurrah, Hurrah,
                      He'll give them all a tarnal switchin',
                      When he begins to "clear de kitchen."
_The refrain was not sung, for just at that point a big fellow stepped
to the coach window from the crowd that had collected, wanting to
know if anybody in there thought himself man enough to give a
Democrat a "tarnal switching," and seemed determined to press his
demand. He was pulled back with the words, (in rather a low voice,)
"Why, Jim, you fool, keep away from them, they're Indians."
     At this point, the new team having been hitched, "Old Hundred"
welled up, and the stage dashed away, under a tremendous "Hurrah
for Van Buren."
     A special feature of the log cabin campaign was a kind of drink
sold all over the country, known as "coon oil." It had a sweetish lemon
flavor, yellowish in color, and rather oily consistence. Its special 
peculiarity was its efficiency in making men drunk, and that, in a shorter
time, than any intoxicating liquid, ever before known, perhaps by its
seductive taste. As the coon was an emblem of the Whig canvass, this
drink, which it was said, left men without headaches or other bad



 

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feelings, was named "coon-oil," and the place of rendezvous was to be
known as "coon boxes."
     These extravagances were almost entirely on one side. The Demo-
cratic party had its hickory poles, standing as sentinels all over the
country, whilst roosters and other insignia decorated their banners.
In their processions, hickory bushes and roosters were carried, but they
were visibly weak, and expended their principal batteries against
"The wild delirium and extravagance of the Whigs." They were
rather overwhelmed, and their enthusiasm was moderate, the field pieces
being chiefly the hickory, rooster and petticoat.
     There was not, on either side, separate from paraphernalia, very
much display of logic.
 



 

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                                Chapter XVII.
                                STATISTICS
     The number of children in Fairfield county eligible to enter the 
common schools, that is between six years and twenty-one years of age,
in 1879, was 11,904.
     The number of civil judgments entered in Fairfield county court
of common pleas, for the year ending June 30, 1879, was 289. Of
these, 195 were rendered for money alone, and 94, where money was
included. Amount of judgments, $131,900. Within the same time,
36 decrees were rendered by the county, for the year ending March 31,
1879.
     Number of births in the county for the year ending March 31, 1879,
725.
     Number of letters of guardianship issued by the probate court, for
the year ending March 31, 1879, 47; number of wills probated, 40;
letters testamentary, 24; letters of administration issued, 51; estates
administered on, 75.
     Number of persons sent to insane asylums from Fairfield county for
the year ending March 31, 1879, 17; males, 6; females, 11.
     Number of paupers supported by Fairfield county, for the year 
ending March 31, 1879, 209. Total expense to the county, including 
outside support, $12,420. Average cost of each pauper per diem, twenty
cents.
     POLITICAL.---Since 1832 the county of Fairfield has been Democrat-
ic by majorities ranging from 800 to 1000. As is well known, the
birth of the Democratic party was coincident with Andrew Jackson's
presidential canvass. The numerical relation between the Republicans
and Democrats of the present day is almost the same as existed between
the old Whigs and Democrats. Prior to the Rebellion the Abolition
party had no existence in this county, there never having been more
than three or four votes cast.
     There is hardly a civilized nation on earth that is not represented in
Fairfield county, some countries having furnished thousands of its
present population. In 1798, when immigrants first began pouring into
the Hocking Valley, Pennsylvania furnished the most, followed by 
Virginia, Maryland and Kentucky. In 1799 and 1800, several small 
colonies of Swiss arrived and settled in the neighborhood of what is now
Basil, Liberty township. This continued until a considerable Swiss 
settlement was formed, and the name "Liberty" was given to the town-
ship by them. Soon after the population of Fairfield county was greatly 
and rapidly augmented by arrivals from "Der Faderland" and Holland. 
The dialect of every German province is spoken in Fairfield
county, the Teutonic being second only to the English tongue, in the
number of its representatives.
     There is not a European state or province, or one of the original
thirteen United Colonies of America, not represented in Fairfield
county, the New England States and Carolinas furnishing the smallest
number of settlers.
     MARRIAGE LICENSES.---By reference to the records of the clerk of
court, and those of the probate court, it is found, that within a period
of forty-six years, viz., from April 1835 to April 1881, there were issued 
within and for Fairfield county, 13,243 marriage licenses, being
an average of 290 to the year. This would give the number of persons 
married within the same time at 26,680.  This seems wonderful,
because the average population of the county for the same years, has
been below thirty thousand souls, all told, including children and aged
persons; and yet this is true.  Even the present population is but little
above thirty thousand.
     SOME MORTALITY STATISTICS.---The average duration of human
life in Fairfield county, until recently, has been estimated at 33 years;
it is now supposed to be between 35 and 37 years, undoubtedly owing
to improved sanitary conditions and better modes of living. To throw
some light on the subject of longevity, the births and deaths within
the county for the year 1877 are here given.   City of Lancaster, first
ward, births, 30; deaths, 16; second ward, births, 14; deaths, 8;
third ward, births, 22; deaths, 14; fourth ward, births, 14; deaths, 4;
fifth ward, births 17; deaths, 5.  Total for the city of Lancaster---
births, 97; deaths, 47.   Hocking township, births, 28; deaths, 9;
Amanda township, births, 48; deaths, 10; Pleasant township, births,
44; deaths, 28; Richland township, births, 28; deaths, 9; Rush Creek
township, births, 58; deaths, 16; Greenfield township, births, 33;
deaths, 12; Madison township, births, 25; deaths, 17; Bloom town-
ship, births, 46; deaths, 9; Walnut township, births, 40; deaths, 17;
Violet township, births, 66; deaths 18; Berne township, births, 31;
deaths, 15; Liberty township, births, 58; deaths, 15. Total births for
the county, outside of Lancaster, 525; total deaths in the county, out-
side of Lancaster, 187. Total births, city and county, 622; total deaths,
city and county, 236. It will be noticed that the number of deaths in
proportion to the births, is greater in the city than in the country.
     The population of the county in 1877 varied a little either way
from 34,000; the inhabitants of the city of Lancaster, for that year,
numbered about 6,000.
     The number of deaths in Fairfield county for the year ending March
31, 1879; White, males, 137; white, females, 129; colored, males, 3;
colored, females, 2; deaths, where sex was unknown, 14. Total deaths
for the year, 285.
     Causes of death in the county for the year ending March 31, 1879;
Measles, 1; scarlet fever, 5; diphtheria, 12; croup, 9; whooping cough,
2; typhoid fever, 9; erysipelas, 1; influenza, 1; cholera infantum, 8;
ague, 2; rheumatism, 4; gout, 1; dropsy, 9; cancer, 6; mortification,
1; scrofula, 3; consumption of the bowels, 1; consumption of the
lungs, 49; dropsy of the brain, 1; inflammation of the brain, 3; 
apoplexy, 2; paralysis, 7; epilepsy, 1; convulsions, 4; brain disease, 7;
inflammation about the heart, 1; heart disease, etc., 19; bronchitis, 2;
asthma, 3; lung disease, etc., 29; inflammation of the stomach, 1; 
inflammation of the bowels, 2; fistula, 2; liver complaint, 2; diabetes,



 

HISTORY OF FAIRFIELD COUNTY

111        
2; joint disease, 6; carbuncles, 1; skin disease, 1; child-birth, 3; old
age, 20; atrophy, 2; fractures and contusions, 1; burns, 1; suicides,
2; sudden deaths and causes unknown, 17; still-births, 1.
     INQUESTS---The number of inquests held in Fairfield county by 
justices of the peace, for the year ending June 30, 1879, was 5; by the
county coroner, 6; of this number two were suicides, three were 
homicides, and six by accident. Of the eleven, three were foreign born,
three were native born, and five nativity unknown.